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双语:民族区域自治制度在西藏的成功实践(4)

2015-09-10    来源:chinadaily    【      美国外教 在线口语培训

四、保障人民当家作主
IV. The People as Masters of the Country


人民当家作主,是中国民族区域自治制度的核心和根本。实行民族区域自治制度,为西藏各族人民实现当家作主,真正成为国家和社会的主人,提供了制度性保障。
That the people are masters of the country is the core and foundation of the system of regional ethnic autonomy. The implementation of this system provides an institutional guarantee for the people of all ethnic groups in Tibet to be masters of the country and of society in the real sense.

——西藏各族人民享有充分的选举权与被选举权
-- The people of all ethnic groups in Tibet have the full right to vote and stand for election.


中国宪法规定,凡年满十八周岁的中华人民共和国公民,不分民族、种族、性别、职业、家庭出身、宗教信仰、教育程度、财产状况、居住期限,都有选举权和被选举权;但是依照法律被剥夺政治权利的人除外。同时,中国民族区域自治法对各民族代表人数、自治区人大常委会主任、人民政府主席等都做了规定。在西藏,各民族人民依法直接选举县(区)、乡镇人民代表大会的代表,这些代表又选举出席全国和自治区人民代表大会的代表。西藏人口较少的门巴族、珞巴族在全国人大及西藏各级人大中也均有自己的代表。 As stipulated in the Constitution of the People's Republic of China, "All citizens of the People's Republic of China who have reached the age of 18 have the right to vote and stand for election, regardless of ethnic status, race, sex, occupation, family background, religious belief, education, property status, or length of residence, other than persons deprived of political rights according to law." The Law of the People's Republic of China on Regional Ethnic Autonomy has provisions regarding the numbers of deputies from all ethnic groups to the people's congress of an autonomous region, the chairperson of the standing committee of the people's congress of an autonomous region, and chairperson of the people's government of an autonomous region. In Tibet, the people of all ethnic groups directly elect deputies to the people's congresses at the county (district), township and town levels in accordance with the law; these deputies elect the deputies to the National People's Congress (NPC) and the people's congress of the autonomous region. The Monba and the Lhoba ethnic groups who have a small share in Tibet's population also have deputies to the NPC and the people's congresses at all levels in Tibet.

2012年至2013年1月,在四级人大换届选举中,西藏全区有94%以上的选民分别参加了县、乡直接选举。西藏现有各级人大代表34264名。其中,全国人大代表中藏族和其他少数民族代表占66.7%,自治区人大代表中藏族和其他少数民族代表占70.2%。自治区十届人大常委会组成人员45名,其中藏族和其他少数民族24名,常委会主任、副主任14名,其中藏族和其他少数民族8名。西藏自治区成立至今,历任自治区人大常委会主任和自治区人民政府主席均为藏族公民。
From 2012 to January 2013, 94 percent of the constituency of Tibet Autonomous Region participated in direct elections at the county and township levels, among the four levels of the people's congresses. Currently, Tibet has 34,264 deputies to the people's congresses at all levels. Among them, deputies from the Tibetan and other minority ethnic groups account for 66.7 percent and 70.2 percent respectively of all deputies from Tibet to the NPC and to the People's Congress of Tibet Autonomous Region. In the 10th Standing Committee of the People's Congress of Tibet Autonomous Region, 24 of the 45 members and eight of the 14 chairperson/vice-chairpersons are from the Tibetan and other minority ethnic groups. Since the founding of Tibet Autonomous Region, all the chairpersons of the standing committee of its people's congress and all the chairpersons of its people's government have been Tibetan citizens.

西藏各族人民充分享有自主管理本民族本地区事务的权利。按照中国宪法规定,西藏自治区的自治机关依法行使省级地方国家机关的职权,同时依法行使自治权。西藏自治区人民代表大会享有制定自治条例和单行条例的权力。自治区成立以来,自治区人民代表大会作为自治区最高权力机构,代表西藏人民依法行使了自主管理本民族本地区事务的权利,听取审议自治区人民政府的工作报告,自治区人大常委会、高级人民法院、人民检察院的工作报告,对上述国家机关的工作进行监督;制定重要地方性法规,对自治区经济、社会发展中的重大事项作出决议决定;审查、批准自治区国民经济和社会发展计划、财政预决算;选举产生自治区人大常委会组成人员,自治区主席、副主席,自治区高级人民法院院长、人民检察院检察长等。
The people of all ethnic groups in Tibet fully enjoy the right to manage their ethnic and regional affairs. According to the Chinese Constitution, the organs of self-government of Tibet Autonomous Region exercise the power and functions of provincial-level state organs as well as the power of autonomy in accordance with the law. The People's Congress of Tibet Autonomous Region has the power to enact regulations on the exercise of autonomy and other separate regulations. Since Tibet Autonomous Region was established, its people's congress, as the supreme authority in the region and on behalf of the people of Tibet, has exercised the power of autonomy in managing its ethnic and regional affairs: listen to and review the work reports of the people's government, the standing committee of the people's congress, the higher people's court, and the people's procuratorate of the autonomous region, and supervise the work of these local state organs; enact major local regulations, and make major resolutions and decisions on local social and economic development; review and approve economic and social development plans, financial budgets and final accounts; and elect the members of the standing committee of the people's congress, chairpersons and vice-chairpersons of the autonomous region, the president of the higher people's court, and the procurator-general of the people's procuratorate.

截至2015年7月,西藏自治区人大及其常委会制定、批准地方性法规和作出具有法规性质的决议、决定共300件,其中现行有效的地方性法规123件,具有法规性质的决议、决定148件,废止29件,内容涉及政权建设、经济发展、社会稳定、文化教育、语言文字、文物保护、生态环保等各个方面。政协西藏自治区委员会,每年对自治区人民政府的《政府工作报告》《国民经济和社会发展计划报告》《财政预算报告》和自治区“两院”的工作报告进行协商讨论,先后组织委员参与西藏地方性法规(草案)的协商讨论,以全委会、常委会、主席会议、民主协商会议、专题座谈会议、委员视察、调研、提案及举办“经济发展论坛”等形式,为西藏自治区“八五”“九五”“十五”“十一五”“十二五”计划、规划的制定和实施提出意见和建议,代表西藏各界积极履行参政议政的职能。
By July 2015, the People's Congress of Tibet Autonomous Region and its Standing Committee had enacted and ratified 123 local regulations that are currently effective, made 148 resolutions and decisions that have the same legal standing as regulations, and 29 regulations, resolutions and decisions it ratified have been repealed. They total 300 in all, covering the building of political power, economic development, social stability, culture, education, language, protection of cultural relics, and environmental protection. Every year the Committee of Tibet Autonomous Region of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference discusses the work report, the economic and social development plan, and the financial budget report of the People's Government of Tibet Autonomous Region, and the work report of the Higher People's Court and the People's Procuratorate of Tibet Autonomous Region; organizes its members to participate in the consultation and discussion of Tibet's local regulations (draft); voices opinions and offers suggestions on the formulation and implementation of the Eighth, Ninth, 10th, 11th, and 12th Five-year Plans of Tibet Autonomous Region at plenary meetings, standing committee meetings, chairman's meetings, consultative conferences, special symposiums, or through member inspections and investigations, making proposals and convening "economic development forums." In this way, it exercises the functions of participating in the deliberation and administration of state affairs on behalf of all circles in Tibet.

中国民族区域自治法规定,上级国家机关的决议、决定、命令和指示,如有不适合民族自治地方实际情况的,自治机关可以报经该上级国家机关批准,变通执行或停止执行。如在执行全国性法定节假日的基础上,西藏自治机关还将“藏历新年”“雪顿节”等藏民族的传统节日列入自治区的节假日。根据西藏特殊的自然地理因素,西藏自治区将职工的周工作时间规定为35小时,比全国法定工作时间少5小时。1981年,西藏自治区人民代表大会常务委员会从西藏少数民族历史婚俗等实际情况出发,通过了《西藏自治区施行〈中华人民共和国婚姻法〉的变通条例》,将《婚姻法》规定的男女法定婚龄分别降低两岁,并规定对执行变通条例之前已经形成的一妻多夫和一夫多妻婚姻关系,凡不主动提出解除婚姻关系者,准予维持。结合西藏实际情况,自治区还先后制定实施了多项国家有关法律的变通条例和补充规定。其中包括《西藏自治区文物保护条例》《西藏自治区环境保护条例》《西藏自治区人民代表大会常务委员会关于严厉打击“赔命金”违法犯罪行为的决定》等多部地方法规。
According to the Law of the People's Republic of China on Regional Ethnic Autonomy, "If a resolution, decision, order or instruction of a state organ at a higher level does not suit the conditions in an ethnic autonomous area, the organ of self-government of the area may either implement it with certain alterations or cease implementing it after reporting to and receiving the approval of the state organ at a higher level." In addition to national holidays, for example, Tibet has also established other public holidays, mostly traditional Tibetan festivals such as the Tibetan New Year and Shoton Festival. Taking into consideration its special natural and geographical conditions, Tibet Autonomous Region applies 35 weekly working hours, five hours less than the national legal level. In 1981, after taking into consideration Tibet's history and folk customs, the Standing Committee of the People's Congress of Tibet Autonomous Region promulgated the Alternative Regulations of Tibet Autonomous Region on the Implementation of the Marriage Law of the People's Republic of China, in which the legal age of marriage for both men and women was reduced by two years relative to the Marriage Law of the People's Republic of China, and polyandrous and polygynous relationships that had existed before the regulations took effect would be allowed to continue if no one involved proposed dissolution. In light of the actual conditions in Tibet, the autonomous region enacted and implemented multiple alternative regulations and supplementary provisions on state laws, including the Regulations of Tibet Autonomous Region on the Protection of Cultural Relics, the Regulations of Tibet Autonomous Region on Environmental Protection, and the Decision of the Standing Committee of the People's Congress of Tibet Autonomous Region on Cracking Down on the Crime of Life Compensation.

——少数民族干部队伍不断成长壮大
-- Minority ethnic group officials are improving their capability.


中国宪法规定,民族自治地方的人民代表大会常务委员会中应当有实行区域自治的民族的公民担任主任或者副主任;自治区主席、自治州州长、自治县县长由实行区域自治的民族的公民担任。为了保障西藏各民族特别是少数民族依照宪法规定,充分行使当家作主的权利,自治区历来非常重视少数民族干部的培养和使用。1965年自治区成立初期,全区只有7600多名少数民族干部;到1976年少数民族干部已发展到1.68万人;到1986年底,全区有3.1万名少数民族干部;到1994年底,有4.4万名少数民族干部;到2014年底,全区少数民族干部已有11万多人,与自治区成立之初相比增长13倍多,占全区干部总量的70%以上。
As stipulated in the Constitution of the People's Republic of China,"Among the chairperson and vice-chairpersons of the standing committee of the people's congress of an ethnic autonomous area, there must be citizens of the ethnic group(s) exercising regional autonomy in the areas concerned; the heads of all autonomous regions, autonomous prefectures and autonomous counties should be citizens of the ethnic group(s) exercising regional autonomy in the areas concerned." To ensure all ethnic groups, especially ethnic minorities in Tibet, fully exercise their rights as masters of the country, Tibet Autonomous Region always advocates the appointment and training of local officials from minority ethnic groups. In the early days after establishment of Tibet Autonomous Region in 1965, it had only 7,600 or more officials from minority ethnic groups; by 1976 the figure was 16,800; by the end of 1986 it was 31,000; by the end of 1994 it was 44,000; and by the end of 2014 it was more than 110,000, 13 times more than that of 1965, and accounting for 70 percent of the total number of officials in the autonomous region.

目前,西藏自治区省级领导干部中有33名少数民族干部,地厅级干部中有450多名少数民族干部,地(市)、县(区)党政正职大部分由少数民族干部担任,乡镇(街道)党政班子中少数民族干部占70%以上,全区各级党政机关中都依法配备了少数民族领导干部。在自治区十届人大代表、政协委员中,少数民族代表、委员均占到70%以上。此外,还有一批优秀少数民族干部直接参与管理国家事务,在西藏十二届全国人大代表、全国政协委员中,藏族和其他少数民族均占80%以上。十世班禅、阿沛·阿旺晋美、帕巴拉·格列朗杰、热地、向巴平措等先后担任国家级领导职务。
Currently, Tibet Autonomous Region has 33 provincial-level officials from minority ethnic groups, and more than 450 departmental/bureau-level officials from minority ethnic groups; chief Party and government officials at the prefectural/municipal and county/district levels are mostly ethnic minorities; 70 percent or more of the officials in the Party and government leading groups at the township and town/sub-district levels are ethnic minorities; and the Party and government organs at all levels in the Region have ethnic minority leading officials in accordance with the law. Among both the deputies to the 10th People's Congress and members of the 10th People's Political Consultative Conference of Tibet Autonomous Region, ethnic minorities account for more than 70 percent. Moreover, a number of outstanding ethnic minority officials in Tibet directly participate in the administration of state affairs. Among the 12th NPC deputies and the 12th CPPCC National Committee members from Tibet, Tibetans and other ethnic minorities account for more than 80 percent. The 10th Panchen Erdeni, Ngapoi Ngawang Jigme, Pagbalha Geleg Namgyai, Raidi and Qiangba Puncog have all been high-ranking leaders at the state level.

——平等团结互助和谐的民族关系不断巩固和发展
-- Ethnic relationships featuring equality, unity, mutual support and harmony have been enhanced and developed.


没有各民族间的平等团结,就没有各民族人民的当家作主。实现民族平等团结,是中国共产党民族理论和民族政策的基本出发点和落脚点。西藏自治区成立50年来,中央政府和自治区坚持实行民族平等团结互助和谐的政策,通过保障各族人民当家作主的权利、加强少数民族干部的培养使用、各民族自发的交往交流交融和全国支援西藏经济社会发展等,形成了各民族在社会主义大家庭中和衷共济、和睦相处、和谐发展的良好局面。
Without equality and unity among all ethnic groups, the people cannot be masters of the country. Achieving ethnic equality and unity is the starting point and ultimate goal of the CPC's ethnic philosophy and policy. Over the past 50 years since Tibet Autonomous Region was established, the central government and Tibet Autonomous Region have adhered to the policy of ethnic equality, unity, mutual support, and harmony. Through protecting the rights of all ethnic groups as masters of the country, improving the appointment and training of ethnic minority officials, promoting voluntary communication, exchanges and interaction among all ethnic groups, and enhancing support from other parts of the country for Tibet's social and economic development, China has created a favorable situation wherein all ethnic groups work together in harmony towards common development.

中央政府历来高度重视西藏的发展,十分关心西藏各族人民的福祉,举全国之力支援西藏,以优惠的政策和强大的人力、物力、财力支持,推动西藏的发展进步。从1952年到2014年,中央政府对西藏的各项财政补助达6480.8亿元,占西藏地方公共财政支出的92.8%。1980年以来,中央先后六次召开西藏工作座谈会,从中国社会主义现代化建设全局出发,对西藏的发展建设作出整体规划。从1994年第三次西藏工作座谈会开始,中央实施对口支援西藏的政策,安排60个中央国家机关、18个省市和17家中央企业对口支援西藏。20年来,先后有七批4496名优秀干部、1466名专业技术人才进藏工作,实施援藏项目7615个,投入援藏资金260亿元,主要用于改善民生和基础设施建设,为西藏经济社会发展作出了重要贡献。
The central government always attaches great importance to the development of Tibet, cares for the wellbeing of the people of all ethnic groups in Tibet, mobilizes resources from the whole country to assist Tibet, and promotes progress in Tibet through providing preferential policies and full support in personnel, materials, and funds. From 1952 to 2014, the central government provided Tibet with financial subsidies totaling 648.08 billion yuan, which accounted for 92.8 percent of Tibet's public financial expenditure. Since 1980, there have been six national symposiums on work in Tibet, formulating integrated blueprints for Tibet's development from the perspective of the country's overall drive towards modernization. Since the Third National Symposium on Work in Tibet in 1994, the central government has put into effect the policy of pairing-up support for Tibet, whereby 60 central state organs, 18 provinces or municipalities directly under the central government, and 17 centrally managed state-owned enterprises have paired up with various areas of Tibet in order to provide assistance to them. Over the last two decades, 4,496 outstanding officials and 1,466 professionals have been sent to work in Tibet in seven batches; 7,615 assistance projects have been carried out; and 26 billion yuan has been invested in Tibet, mainly directed at improving infrastructure and the quality of life. All of this assistance has made an enormous contribution to Tibet's social and economic development.

1990年,西藏自治区党委、政府确定每年9月为“民族团结月”。2010年之前,自治区党委、政府先后召开了五次民族团结进步表彰大会,受到表彰的先进集体和个人达1756名,涌现出像孔繁森、李素芝等一大批民族团结先进典型。从2012年起,自治区各级党委、政府坚持每年召开一次民族团结进步模范表彰大会,共表彰模范集体2089个、模范个人3224名。2013年,拉萨市成为创建“全国民族团结进步示范州(地区、市、盟)”试点。近年来,西藏军区军史馆、江孜宗山抗英遗址、自治区博物馆、西藏民族学院、拉萨海关先后被国家民委命名为“全国民族团结进步教育基地”。“汉族离不开少数民族、少数民族离不开汉族、各少数民族也相互离不开”的思想深入人心,“团结稳定是福、分裂动乱是祸”成为全社会的广泛共识。
In 1990, the Party Committee and the government of Tibet Autonomous Region designated September as Ethnic Unity Month. Before 2010, the Party Committee and the government of the autonomous region had held five ethnic unity and progress award ceremonies that commended 1,756 outstanding units and individuals, including Kong Fansen and Li Suzhi. Since 2012, the Party committees and governments at all levels in Tibet have held annual ethnic unity and progress award ceremonies, and commended 2,089 units and 3,224 individuals. In 2013, Lhasa was selected as the pilot city for National Demonstration Prefecture (City/League) for Ethnic Unity and Progress. In recent years, the History Museum of the Tibet Military Command, Dzong Fortress in Gyantse where the Tibetans had fought British invaders, the Museum of Tibet Autonomous Region, Tibet Minzu University, and Lhasa Customs have been designated by the State Ethnic Affairs Commission as Education Bases for National Ethnic Unity and Progress. The thought that "the Han ethnic group cannot develop without minority ethnic groups, and vice versa, while all minority ethnic groups cannot develop separately" has taken root in people's minds. The public have reached the consensus that "unity and stability are a blessing while secession and riots are a scourge."



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