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双语:民族区域自治制度在西藏的成功实践(5)

2015-09-14    来源:chinadaily    【      美国外教 在线口语培训

五、大力增进人民福祉
V. Improving People's Welfare


在民族区域自治制度下,西藏经济社会发展不断迈上新台阶,实现了跨越式发展。经济的快速发展和社会的全面进步,使西藏各族人民得到实实在在的好处,人民的生存权和发展权得到有效保障,社会和谐安宁。
Under the system of regional ethnic autonomy, Tibet's economic and social development has achieved leapfrog development by constantly reaching higher levels. Rapid economic growth and comprehensive social progress have brought real benefits to all ethnic groups in Tibet, effectively guaranteeing their right to subsistence and development, and maintaining the harmony and stability of its society.

——现代化发展水平日益提高
-- Tibet's modernization level has steadily risen.

西藏生产总值由1965年的3.27亿元增加到2014年的920.8亿元,增长281倍。1994年以来,西藏地区生产总值连续20年保持两位数增长,年均增速高达12.4%。1965年西藏地方财政收入仅为2239万元,2014年达到164.75亿元,年均增长高达14.46%,自我发展的能力不断增强。全区工业增加值由1965年的0.09亿元增加到2014年的66.16亿元,增长735倍,年均增长14.4%。第二产业增加值在地区生产总值中的占比由1965年的6.7%提高到2014年的36.6%。2014年,全区社会消费品零售总额达364.51亿元,比1965年的0.89亿元增长了409倍,以年均13.1%的速度递增;进出口总额达22.55亿美元,比1965年的0.07亿美元增长了321倍,年均增长12.5%。
Tibet's GDP soared from 327 million yuan in 1965 to 92.08 billion yuan in 2014, a 281-fold increase. Since 1994, the local GDP has grown at an annual rate of 12.4 percent on average, registering double-digit growth for 20 consecutive years. Local fiscal revenues increased from 22.39 million yuan in 1965 to 16.475 billion yuan in 2014, an average annual increase of 14.46 percent, further enhancing Tibet's self-development capabilities. The Region's industrial added value skyrocketed from nine million yuan in 1965 to 6.616 billion yuan in 2014, a 735-fold increase, or an average annual growth of 14.4 percent, and the proportion of secondary industry's added value in the local GDP rose from 6.7 percent in 1965 to 36.6 percent in 2014. Total retail sales of consumer goods increased from 89 million yuan in 1965 to 36.451 billion yuan in 2014, a 409-fold increase, or an average annual growth of 13.1 percent. The total volume of Tibet's foreign trade rose from US$7 million in 1965 to US$2.255 billion in 2014, a 321-fold increase, or an average annual growth of 12.5 percent.

藏医药业、民族手工业、绿色食饮品和新能源等特色产业得到优先发展。目前,7个产业带初步形成,建设农业标准化示范区20个,培育地市级以上农牧业产业化龙头企业95家。建工、矿业、旅游、藏药、商贸等九大集团相继组建。藏药产业初具规模,全区藏药企业18家,藏药品种360多个。天然饮用水产量突破30万吨,成为新的经济增长点。2014年接待游客1553万人次,比旅游业起步时的1980年增长4436倍,年均增长28.0%;实现旅游总收入204亿元,增长20400倍,年均增长32.8%。
Priority has been given to such industries with Tibetan characteristics as Tibetan medicine, folk handicrafts, green food and drinks, and new energy. At present, seven industrial belts have taken shape, 20 demonstration zones of standardized agriculture have been established, and 95 agricultural and animal husbandry industrialization leading enterprises at or above the prefectural level cultivated. Nine big groups have been established, one by one, including construction and engineering, mining, tourism, Tibetan medicine, and commerce and trade. Tibetan medicine industry has taken shape, with 18 pharmaceutical enterprises producing more than 360 kinds of drugs. The output of natural drinking water has exceeded 300,000 tons, making the industry a new economic growth point. In 2014, Tibet received 15.53 million tourists, a 4,436-fold increase compared with 1980 when the Region first opened to tourism, or an average annual increase of 28 percent. Tourism revenue has now reached 20.4 billion yuan, a 20,400-fold increase or an average annual increase of 32.8 percent.

以公路、铁路、航空为主的综合交通运输体系基本形成,交通更加便利。以拉萨为中心,东连四川、云南,西接新疆,北连青海,南通印度、尼泊尔,地市相通,县乡连接的公路交通网络基本建成。2014年底,全区公路通车里程达到7.5万公里,次高级以上路面里程达到8891公里,占12.6%。全区74个县中65个县通了柏油路,占88%;690个乡镇通公路,通达率99.7%;5408个行政村通公路,通达率99.2%。格尔木至拉萨、拉萨至日喀则铁路相继通车运营,拉萨至林芝铁路开工建设。组建了西藏航空公司,区内通航机场5个,8家航空公司在藏运营,开通国内外航线48条,通航城市达33个,形成以拉萨贡嘎机场为中心,昌都邦达、林芝米林、阿里昆莎和日喀则和平机场为支线的五大民用机场网络。
A comprehensive transportation system including roads, railways and aviation has been built, further facilitating Tibet's transportation. Radiating from Lhasa to Sichuan and Yunnan in the east, Xinjiang in the west, Qinghai in the north, and India and Nepal in the south, a road transportation network that connects prefectures, cities, counties, and townships has taken shape. At the end of 2014, the total length of roads open to traffic reached 75,000 km, 8,891 km of which have sub-high-grade surfaces or better, accounting for 12.6 percent of the total. Sixty-five, or 88 percent, of all 74 counties in Tibet had access to asphalt roads. As many as 690 townships and 5,408 administrative villages could be reached by road, respectively accounting for 99.7 percent and 99.2 percent of the total. The Golmud-Lhasa and Lhasa-Shigatse railways had opened to traffic, and the construction of the railway connecting Lhasa and Nyingchi started. Tibet Airlines was established, with five airports, and eight airlines operating in Tibet. An airport network has taken shape in Tibet, with Gongkar Airport in Lhasa as the main hub, and Bangda Airport in Qamdo, Menling Airport in Nyingchi, Gunsa Airport in Ngari and Heping Airport in Shigatse as the branches, catering to 48 domestic and international air routes that link Tibet with 33 cities in China and the rest of the world.

以水电为主,地热、风能、太阳能等多能互补的新型能源体系全面建设。拉萨环网工程和输变电工程、青藏直流联网工程、川藏电网联网工程建成投入运行,结束了西藏电网孤网运行的历史;直孔电站、狮泉河电站、雪卡电站、羊八井地热电站、拉萨火力发电等应急电源项目建成发电,区内装机容量最大的水电项目藏木水电站发电,能源点建设加快推进。2014年全区电力装机规模达到169.7万千瓦,全年发电量32.2亿千瓦时。组织实施了那曲尼玛县、双湖县及阿里7县1镇无电地区电力建设项目,累计示范推广光伏系统3万套,建设光伏电站90座,太阳能路灯1200多盏,总装机容量8000千瓦。2012年底,实现行政村全部通电,基本解决无电人口用电问题。
An extensive energy system has now been formed with hydropower as the mainstay, backed up by geothermal, wind, and solar energy sources. Lhasa's Ethernet ring network project and power transmission and transformation project, the Qinghai-Tibet Power Grid Interconnection Project, and the Sichuan-Tibet Interconnection Project have officially gone into operation, so consigning to history the previously solitary operation of Tibet Autonomous Region power line. Such emergency power supply projects as Zhikong Hydropower Station, Shiquanhe Hydropower Station, Xueka Hydropower Station, Yangbajain Geothermal Power Station, and Lhasa's thermal power plant have been built and put into operation. Zam Hydropower Station, the hydroelectric project with the biggest installed capacity in the Region, has also become operational. Moreover, the building of energy bases was facilitated. In 2014 the total installed generating capacity reached 1.697 million kw, and the annual output of generated electricity came to 3.22 billion kwh. Tibet initiated and carried out power construction projects in Nyima County and Tsonyi in Nagchu, and in seven counties and one township in Ngari that were without electricity. The Region has demonstrated and promoted 30,000 photovoltaic (PV) systems, established 90 PV power plants, and more than 1,200 solar streetlamps, with a total installed capacity of 8,000 kw. By the end of 2012, all administrative villages had access to electricity, and the problem of electricity access had been basically solved.

以光缆、卫星、网络为主的现代通讯网络体系已逐步建立健全。现在的西藏已进入了卫星、光缆、网络、信息新时代。全区光缆线路长度达到9.7万公里,其中长途光缆线路为3万多公里,累计实现74个县、668个乡镇通光缆,乡镇通光缆率为97.8%;实现5261个行政村移动信号覆盖。全区互联网用户达到217.7万户,普及率为70.7%,农牧区移动互联网覆盖率达到65%以上。
Tibet has now entered the information age, having established a modern telecommunications network with optical cable satellites and the Internet as the backbone. The total length of optical cable lines in the Region has reached 97,000 km, among which over 30,000 km are long-distance optical cable lines. Optical cables have now reached 668 townships and towns in 74 counties, or 97.8 percent of all townships and towns in Tibet, and mobile phone signals cover 5,261 administrative villages. The number of Internet user households has reached 2.177 million, with an Internet penetration of 70.7 percent, and mobile Internet coverage in farming and pastoral areas has surpassed 65 percent.

——人民幸福指数大幅提升
-- People's happiness quotient has been greatly improved.


城乡居民收入快速增长,人民生活更加充实富裕。2014年,城镇居民人均可支配收入达22016元,比1978年的565元增长38倍,年均增长10.7%;农牧民人均可支配收入7359元,年均增长10.9%。城镇化水平不断提升。1982年第三次人口普查时城镇人口所占总人口比重仅为9.48%,1990年提高到11.52%,2000年为19.43%,2010年达到22.67%。随着人民生活逐步富裕,消费结构开始多样化,冰箱、彩电、电脑、洗衣机、摩托车、手机等消费品进入了寻常百姓家。富裕起来的农牧民盖起了舒适宽敞的新房,有的还购买了汽车。广播、电视、通信、互联网等现代信息传递手段,与全国乃至世界同步发展,已经深入到人民群众的日常生活之中。在国家统计局、中国邮政集团公司和中央电视台联合举办的“CCTV经济生活大调查”中,拉萨市连续5年被评为中国幸福指数最高的城市。
People in both urban and rural areas are living a richer and fuller life as their incomes increase rapidly. In 2014 the per capita disposable income of urban residents reached 22,016 yuan, a 38-fold increase, or an average annual increase of 10.7 percent compared with 565 yuan in 1978; and that of farmers and herdsmen was 7,359 yuan, representing an average annual increase of 10.9 percent. The level of urbanization has also steadily risen. The proportion of urban population during the third population census in 1982 was 9.48 percent, but this percentage increased to 11.52 in 1990, to 19.43 in 2000 and to 22.67 in 2010. Along with improvements to the people's livelihood, diversified consumption patterns have appeared, and such consumer goods as refrigerators, color TV sets, computers, washing machines, motorcycles, and mobile phones have entered ordinary households. Many farmers and herdsmen have become well-off and built new houses; some have even bought automobiles. Radio, television, telecommunications, the Internet and other modern information transmission means, which are at the same level as that of the country and the rest of the world, are now part of Tibetans' daily life. According to the "CCTV Economic Life Survey" jointly hosted by the National Bureau of Statistics, China Post Group, and China Central Television (CCTV), Lhasa has topped the "happiness index" in China for five consecutive years.

城乡居民居住条件得到极大改善。为改善城乡居民居住条件,西藏从2006年起在全国率先提出全区实施农牧民安居工程,到2013年,全区累计投资278亿元,完成46.03万户的农牧民安居工程建设,使230万农牧民群众住上了安全适用的房屋,农牧民人均居住面积达到30.4平方米,生活条件得到历史性改善。自治区不断加大对周转房建设的投入力度,共建设周转房66076套,总建筑面积404.42万平方米,总投资88.09亿元。积极实施拉萨供暖工程,自2012年开工以来,建成燃气主干管网63公里、燃气次干管网256公里、庭院管网1200余公里,已完成居民小区及单位供暖项目建设768个、10.7万户、2136万平方米,拉萨城区基本实现供暖全覆盖,彻底结束了祖祖辈辈靠烧牛粪取暖的历史。
Both urban and rural residents' living conditions have greatly improved. Tibet took the lead in 2006 in initiating low-income housing projects for local farmers and herdsmen. By the end of 2013, the Region had appropriated 27.8 billion yuan and finished building 460,300 low-income houses. As many as 2.3 million farmers and herdsmen had moved into safe modern houses, their per capita living space having reached 30.4 sq m, so marking an historic improvement in their living conditions. Constantly increasing input into the building of relocation housing, Tibet has built 66,076 more such houses covering 4.0442 million sq m, with an input of 8.809 billion yuan. The Region has proactively carried out the city heating project in Lhasa. Since initiation of the project in 2012, Tibet has built 63 km of a main gas pipe network, 256 km of a secondary pipe network and more than 1,200 km of a courtyard pipe network. It has completed 768 heating projects for residential areas and workplaces, so benefiting 107,000 households in a 21.36 million sq m area. The heating system has become available to almost all urban areas in Lhasa. The burning of dung for heating is now history.

农牧民人居环境整洁美丽。大力实施水、电、路、气、通讯、邮政、广播电视、优美环境“八到农家”工程,基本解决农牧民的安全饮水问题。实现了村村通电话、村村通广播电视、乡乡通宽带,完成4500个行政村人居环境建设,近24万户农牧民用上了清洁的沼气能源,农牧区碘盐覆盖率达到95%以上。2010年,自治区按照“清洁水源、清洁田园、清洁家园”的要求,开展人居环境和综合环境整治工作。截至目前,已完成投资44亿元,实施4500个行政村村容村貌及环境整治。
Farmers and herdsmen are living in a clean and beautiful environment. Tibet has also improved its facilities in the areas of water, electricity, highways, gas, telecommunications, postal services, radio and television, and the environment in farming and pastoral areas, basically solving the problem of drinking water safety. It has also realized telephone communication and radio and TV coverage in all villages, and broadband connection in all townships. Tibet has improved the living environment of 4,500 administrative villages. Almost 240,000 farmer and herdsman households use clean biogas, and more than 95 percent of rural households cook with iodized salt. Since 2010, work on improving the people's living environment and the ecological environment has been carried out in Tibet according to the requirement of "clean water, clean farm and clean home." At present programs for improving the appearance of villages and the ecological environment have been carried out in 4,500 administrative villages with an input of 4.4 billion yuan.

贫困人口大幅减少。2006-2014年实施贫困户、大骨节病搬迁和“兴边富民行动”,使11.63万户贫困群众人均住房面积增加了20%-30%。昔日许多低矮、阴暗、人畜混杂居住的土坯房变成了安全适用的住房。扶贫开发项目的实施,使57.8万户、260万人受益。新修和维修乡村道路3223公里,水渠3371.6公里、水塘347座232.94万立方米,新增和改善灌溉面积30万亩,新建农用桥883座、12834米,温室4583座,棚圈3.5万套。改良天然草场、草场围栏、人工种草28.78万亩,贫困地区生态环境进一步改善。农牧民收入明显增加,2003年以来连续12年保持了两位数增长。生活在每人每年2300元(2010年不变价)的国家农村扶贫标准下的全区农村贫困人口由2010年的117万人减少到2014年底的61万人,累计减少贫困人口56万人。贫困人口占全区农牧民人口比例,由2010年的49.2%下降至2014年的23.7%。2006年以来,直接、间接落实强农惠农补贴资金累计达到706.36亿元,落实粮食直补资金1.89亿元,落实农资综合补贴3.58亿元,落实家电、家具下乡补贴资金3.4亿元。这些补贴政策提高了农牧民群众收入,提高了农牧民的购买能力,提升了农牧民的生活品质。
The poverty-stricken population has been substantially reduced. From 2006 to 2014, Tibet launched the "Campaign to Develop Border Areas and Improve the Lives of the People," relocated poverty-stricken families and people with Kashin-Beck disease, and increased by 20 to 30 percent the per capita living area of 116,300 poverty-stricken families. Many people have moved from small, dark, adobe houses, where they lived alongside livestock, to safe, more suitable homes. Poverty relief projects have benefited 2.6 million people in 578,000 households. Tibet has built and renovated a total of 3,223 km of country roads, 3,371.6 km of irrigation channels, 347 ponds covering a total 2.3294 million sq m; it has built 883 bridges for agricultural purposes of a total 12,834 m in length, 4,583 greenhouses, and 35,000 pens. It has also installed or improved irrigation systems for 300,000 mu (one mu = 1/15 hectare) of farmland. Tibet has moreover improved the ecological environment of poverty-stricken areas, and the total area of fenced grassland, improved grassland, and planted grassland has reached 287,800 mu. Since 2003, the income of farmers and herdsmen has recorded double-digit growth for 12 consecutive years. The poverty-stricken population - people with a per capita per annum income of less than 2,300 yuan (at constant price of 2010) - has fallen from 1.17 million in 2010 to 610,000 at the end of 2014. The proportion of poverty-stricken population in the Region's total population of farmers and herdsmen fell from 49.2 percent in 2010 to 23.7 percent in 2014. Since 2006, the Region has directly or indirectly allocated a total of 70.636 billion yuan in subsidies to strengthening agriculture and benefiting farmers, 189 million yuan in subsidies to grain production, 358 million yuan as general subsidies for purchasing agricultural supplies, and 340 million yuan as subsidies for purchasing home appliances and furniture. Those subsidies have increased the income and purchasing power of farmers and herdsmen and improved their living standards.

社会保障事业不断迈上新台阶。实施积极的就业政策,就业率保持较高水平。2014年,西藏城镇登记失业率控制在2.5%以内,新增就业4.3万人,提供高校毕业生公职岗位1.1万个,各援藏省市和中央企业共提供就业岗位5335个,1500多名高校毕业生实现了区外就业,全区公益性岗位总量达3万个,通过公益性岗位安置就业26018人,2500多户零就业家庭实现了动态消零,就业形势稳定。近年来,覆盖城乡居民的社会保障体系全面建立。继续加强“五大险种”保障制度,完善城乡居民社会养老保险制度,扩大最低生活保障,实施免费意外保险,建立了寺庙僧尼基本养老和医疗保险制度,全区各项社会保险参保达260.6万人次。企业退休职工基本养老金月人均水平达3338元,居全国前列。城市居民最低生活保障标准提高至每月534元,农村低保标准提高至每年2231元,五保户供养标准提高至每年3873元,分散供养标准提高至每年3874元,集中收养孤儿基本生活保障标准达到月人均1200元。及时发放城乡困难群众慰问金。2013年底,全区各类社会福利机构共有263个,公办儿童福利院8所,民办儿童福利院2所。72%有意愿的五保对象实现集中供养,5900多名孤儿得到有效救助。
Tibet's social security has entered a new stage. Due to its proactive employment policy, Tibet has maintained a high employment rate. In 2014 the registered urban unemployment rate was maintained at below 2.5 percent, and newly increased urban employment totaled 43,000. Graduates from institutions of higher learning were provided with 11,000 jobs in the public sector, while provinces, municipalities directly under the central government and centrally managed state-owned enterprises offered 5,335 job vacancies. More than 1,500 graduates from Tibet found jobs in other parts of the country. The number of public welfare jobs in the Region totaled 30,000, and 26,018 people found jobs in public welfare sectors. More than 2,500 zero-employment households were provided with jobs in a timely manner, and the employment situation remained stable. In recent years, the social security system that covers both urban and rural residents has been established in an all-round way. Tibet strengthened the security system of "five major insurance types" (endowment insurance, unemployment insurance, work-related injury insurance, medical insurance, and maternity insurance), improved the social endowment insurance system for urban and rural residents, expanded the basic living allowance, implemented free accident insurance, and established the basic endowment insurance and medical insurance systems for monks and nuns. These moves have benefited 2.606 million insurance participants. The basic old-age pension for enterprise retirees in Tibet reached 3,338 yuan per person per month, one of the highest in the country. The basic living allowance for urban residents was raised to 534 yuan per person per month and to 2,231 yuan for rural residents per person per year. The yearly payment to those who enjoy the "five guarantees" (for food, clothing, medical care, housing and funeral expenses) was significantly raised to 3,873 yuan per person per year, the standard of rural decentralized support rose to 3,874 yuan per person per year, and the minimum subsistence guarantees for children housed in orphanages was 1,200 yuan per person per month. Condolence money was also timely extended to impoverished urban and rural residents. By the end of 2013, there were 263 social welfare organizations, eight state-run children's welfare homes, and two private children's welfare homes in Tibet. Centralized support covered 72 percent of those who enjoy the "five guarantees," and more than 5,900 orphans were effectively supported.

医疗卫生事业快速发展。目前,西藏已经建成了中、西、藏医结合,以拉萨为中心、遍布城乡的医疗卫生网。以免费医疗为基础的农牧区医疗制度覆盖全体农牧民,全区已建成71个县医院和678个乡镇卫生院,覆盖城乡的医疗卫生服务体系逐步完善。2014年底,全区医疗卫生机构发展到1430所,每千人病床数和卫生技术人员数分别达到3.79张和4.08人,建成了覆盖县乡村三级的医疗卫生网络。城镇职工、城镇居民基本医疗保险年度最高支付限额分别提高到30万元、20万元。城镇居民基本医疗保险财政补助标准提高到年人均380元,政策范围内住院费用支付比例达到75%左右。农牧民人口100%被纳入到以免费医疗为基础的医疗保障体系之中,农牧区医疗政府补助标准达到年人均420元,最高报销补偿限额达6万元,政策范围内报销补偿比例达到80%以上。寺庙僧尼等人群全部纳入基本医疗保险范围。取消了医疗救助起付线,率先在全国实现了医疗救助城乡一体化和社会全覆盖。对城乡居民实施免费健康检查,城乡居民健康档案建档率达99%。2013年,孕产妇死亡率和婴儿死亡率分别下降到154.51/10万人和19.97‰。人均寿命由20世纪50年代的35.5岁增加到68.17岁。全区实现了基本消除碘缺乏病目标。
Tibet's medical undertakings are also rapidly improving. A medical and health network that integrates traditional Chinese, Western and Tibetan medicines has been established in Tibet, covering all cities and villages in the Region, with Lhasa as the center. The Region has built 71 county hospitals and 678 township clinics that provide free basic medical services to all farmers and herdsmen. The medical service system that covers all urban and rural areas is improving, and a three-tier medical service network that covers counties, townships and villages is in place. By the end of 2014, there were 1,430 medical organizations in Tibet, and 3.79 hospital beds and 4.08 medical workers for every 1,000 residents. Maximum payment of basic medical insurance for urban employees reached 300,000 yuan, and for urban residents 200,000 yuan. The fiscal subsidy standard for urban residents' basic medical insurance increased to 380 yuan per person every year, and the inpatient reimbursement rate for urban residents covered by the medical insurance policy reached 75 percent. All farmers and herdsmen in Tibet are now covered by a medical system based on free medical service. It provides each farmer and herdsman with an annual medical allowance of 420 yuan, and an 80 percent reimbursement rate for medical services that the policy covers, with a maximum medical reimbursement of 60,000 yuan. All monks and nuns are included in the basic medical insurance system. Tibet has abolished the deductible line of medical assistance, and was among the earliest in China to realize full coverage and urban-rural integration of medical assistance. Tibet also provides free physical examinations for urban and rural residents, and 99 percent of the Region's urban and rural residents have health records. In 2013, the childbirth mortality rate had fallen to 1.5451 per thousand and the infant mortality rate to 19.97 per thousand. Average life expectancy has risen from 35.5 years in the 1950s to the present 68.17 years. The Region has basically stamped out diseases caused by iodine deficiency.

——各项社会事业全面发展
-- Progress has been made in all social undertakings.


教育事业日新月异,实现学有所教。全区所有县(区)全面完成普及九年义务教育,一个涵盖学前教育、基础教育、职业教育、高等教育、成人教育、特殊教育的比较完整的现代教育体系已经形成。实现了从学前到高中阶段15年免费教育,农牧区义务教育学生营养改善计划全面落实,政策和资金覆盖率均达到100%。“三包”(包吃、包住、包学习费用)政策覆盖学前教育到高中阶段所有农牧民子女和城镇困难家庭子女,且不断提高标准,年生均标准已提高到3000元。全面启动实施城镇三年、农牧区两年学前双语教育工程。2014年底,幼儿园在园幼儿达8万多人,学前教育毛入园率达60%。2014年底,全区拥有普通高等院校6所;中等职业学校9所,在校生1.7万人;高级中学22所,完全中学4所,初级中学93所,十二年和九年一贯制学校各3所,小学829所。小学适龄儿童入学率达到99.64%,青壮年文盲率下降至0.57%以内,人均受教育年限达到8.6年,新增劳动力受教育年限达到12年以上。1984年,中央政府作出“在内地为西藏办学培养人才”的重大战略决策,现有21个省市办有西藏班(校),已累计为西藏培养了大中专毕业生3.2万余人。目前西藏不仅有了自己培养的硕士、博士,而且有了一批享誉全国的专家、学者,逐步建立了近30个科研院所,有各类专业技术人员69709人,学科领域涉及历史、经济、人口、语言、宗教和农业、畜牧、林业、生态、生物、藏医药、盐湖、地热、太阳能等数十个门类。其中,藏学、高原生态、藏医药等学科研究在全国处于领先水平,产生了一批有世界影响的学术成果。
Tibet's education has taken on a new look, and all children can now go to school. Nine-year compulsory education is practiced in all counties in the Region, and a complete modern education system is in place, covering preschool education, basic education, vocational education, higher education, adult education, and special education. Tibet has realized 15-year free education from the preschool stage to senior middle school, fully implemented the nutrition improvement plan for students under compulsory education in agricultural and pastoral areas, and realized 100 percent coverage in terms of both policies and funds. Tibet has covered all tuition, food, and boarding expenses for students from farmers' and herdsmen's families and those from families in urban areas with financial difficulties from preschool education to senior middle school education, and raised the subsidy standard many times to today's 3,000 yuan per student every year. Tibet has launched the campaign to provide three-year bilingual education for preschool children in urban areas, and two years for those in agricultural and pastoral areas. At the end of 2014, there were more than 80,000 children in kindergartens, and the gross enrollment rate for preschool education had reached 60 percent; there were six higher education institutions, nine secondary vocational schools with 17,000 students, 22 senior middle schools, four six-year middle schools, 93 junior middle schools, three nine-year education schools, three 12-year education schools, and 829 primary schools. The primary school enrollment rate reached 99.64 percent among school-age children, the illiteracy rate among young and middle-aged people fell to less than 0.57 percent, and the average length of education reached 8.6 years for the Region's general population and above 12 years for the newly-increased working population. Since the central government adopted the strategy in 1984 of "cultivating talent for Tibet in other parts of China," Tibetan schools and classes in 21 provinces and municipalities directly under the central government have cultivated more than 32,000 graduates from junior colleges and secondary technical schools for Tibet. Tibet has now cultivated its own postgraduate and Ph.D. students, built almost 30 scientific research institutions, compiled a group of renowned experts and scholars, and an army of 69,709 professionals in such areas as history, economics, demographics, languages, religion, agriculture, animal husbandry, forestry, ecology, biology, Tibetan medicine, salt lakes, and geothermal and solar energy. Tibet tops China in areas such as Tibetan studies, plateau ecology, and Tibetan medicine, and boasts academic achievements of world influence.

公共文化服务覆盖城乡,人们精神生活不断丰富。全区已建成群众艺术馆8座、公共图书馆5座、博物馆3座,建成县综合文化活动中心74座,乡镇综合文化站692座,建成文化信息资源共享工程自治区分中心、7个地市支中心、74个县支中心、692个乡镇基层点、5389个村基层点,区、地、县、乡四级公共文化设施网络初步形成。投资近13亿元的“十二五”文化设施建设项目全面推进,到2015年底,西藏将基本实现“地市有公共图书馆和文化馆,馆藏文物丰富地区有博物馆,县县有图书馆、文化馆或综合性文化活动中心,乡乡有综合文化站,53%的县国有艺术团有排练场”目标,公共文化设施总量将达到790个。建成1600余个文化广场,形成拉萨雪顿节等群众性、常态化品牌文化活动90个。全面启动了公共设施的免费开放工作,近5年来,全区公共文化设施共开展免费群众文化活动4万余场,受益群众达到800余万人次。全区专业文艺团体和县民间艺术团年均下乡演出近1万场次,送书下乡10万余册。
Public cultural services now cover both urban and rural areas in Tibet, and have enriched people's cultural life. The Region has built eight public art centers, five public libraries, three museums, 74 county-level cultural activity centers, and 692 township-level cultural stations. In addition, it has built one regional center, seven prefecture-level sub-centers, 74 county-level sub-centers, 692 township-level stations, and 5,389 village-level stations as part of the project to share cultural information and resources. A cultural facility network covering the four levels of autonomous region, prefecture, county, and township is also taking shape. The cultural facility construction project as an important part of the 12th Five-year Plan (2011-2015) with a total input of nearly 1.3 billion yuan is making full progress. By the end of 2015, all prefectures and cities in Tibet will have public libraries and cultural centers, areas rich in cultural relics will have museums, all counties will have libraries, cultural centers or comprehensive cultural activity centers, all townships will have cultural stations, and 53 percent of the county-level state-owned art troupes will have rehearsal spaces. The total number of public cultural venues will reach 790. Tibet has built more than 1,600 cultural squares, and launched 90 regularly-staged popular cultural activities, including the Lhasa Shoton Festival celebrations. Tibet also initiated the campaign to provide free access to public facilities. In the recent five years, the Region's public cultural venues have launched more than 40,000 free mass cultural events, benefiting more than eight million people. The Region's professional art groups and folk art groups at the county level staged more than 10,000 shows, and sent more than 100,000 books to the countryside.

新闻出版事业迅速发展,文化产品日益丰富。西藏人民出版社、西藏藏文古籍出版社累计出版各类图书(教材)19052种、2.8263亿册。西藏音像出版社、雪域音像电子出版社2014年出版音像电子产品115种37.96万盘。报纸、期刊分别发展到25种、35种。全区出版发行单位发展到576家,其中区、地、县新华书店89家,边境口岸新华书店5家,民营发行网点482家。2014年全区共发行图书约3395万册,图书销售码洋3.23亿元。全区印刷企业38家,其中规模以上重点印刷企业1家。2014年全区印刷业总产值3.6亿元。目前,全面建成5609个农家书屋、1700多个寺庙书屋,实现所有行政村有农家书屋、寺寺有寺庙书屋,有效解决了农牧民群众和寺庙僧尼读书难、用书难问题。
Tibet's press and publishing are growing fast, and more and more cultural products are appearing. Tibet People's Publishing House and Tibetan Ancient Books Publishing House published 19,052 book and textbook titles, totaling 282.63 million printed copies. In 2014, the Tibet Audio-Visual Publishing House and the Snowfield Electronic Audio-Visual Publishing House published 115 audio-visual and electronic book titles, totaling 379,600 copies. Tibet has 25 newspapers, 35 periodicals, and 576 publishing and distribution entities, among which 89 are Xinhua Bookstores at regional, prefectural and county levels, five are Xinhua Bookstores at frontier ports, and 482 are private distribution networks. In 2014, the autonomous region distributed 33.95 million copies of books, with a total value of 323 million yuan. The Region has 38 printing enterprises, one of which is a key enterprise with its turnover over 20 million yuan per annum. In 2014, the total output of the Region's printing industry reached 360 million yuan. The Region has built 5,609 rural libraries and 1,700 monastery libraries, bringing libraries to all administrative villages and monasteries, and providing all farmers, herdsmen, monks and nuns with access to books.

广播影视事业得到长足发展。已累计新建、改扩建100瓦以上调频转播台78座,50瓦以上电视转播发射台78座,中波广播发射台27座,卫星地球站1座,村村通广播电视站9371座,全区所有的1787座寺庙实现了广播影视全覆盖。目前,有省级广播电台1座5个频率,听众遍及世界50个国家和地区;有省级电视台1座4个频道,其中,藏语卫视已在尼泊尔、印度、不丹等周边国家部分落地,全台节目实现数字化,覆盖全国人口7亿多人;有地市级广播电台6座,电视台1座。目前,全区广播、电视综合覆盖率由1965年的12%和0%提高到现在的94.78%和95.91%,90%以上农牧户实现了“户户通”。通过直播卫星接收设备,农牧民每家每户能够收听收看到40至70多套数字广播电视节目。目前,全区共有566个电影机构,其中478个农村电影放映队全部实现数字化放映。
Tibet's radio, film and television undertakings have also made significant headway. The Region has built, rebuilt or expanded 78 FM stations above 100 w, 78 television transmitters above 50 w, 27 medium wave broadcast transmitters, one satellite earth station, and 9,371 radio and television stations for all villages. All 1,787 monasteries in the Region now have radio, film and television coverage. At present, Tibet has one provincial broadcast station with five frequencies, and its audiences are found in 50 countries and regions. It has one provincial TV station with four channels. Its programs, all digitized, cover more than 700 million people in China, and its satellite TV programs in Tibetan language can be viewed in neighboring Nepal, India, and Bhutan. Tibet has six prefectural-level radio stations, and one TV station. The coverage of radio in Tibet has increased from 12 percent in 1965 to today's 94.78 percent and that of television from zero in 1965 to today's 95.91 percent. More than 90 percent of farmer and herdsman families have access to radio and television. Through direct broadcast satellite receivers, each rural family can receive 40 to 70 digital radio and TV program channels. At present, Tibet has 566 film agencies, including 478 digitized film projection teams in the countryside.



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