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双语:民族区域自治制度在西藏的成功实践(6)

2015-09-15    来源:chinadaily    【      美国外教 在线口语培训

六、保护和弘扬优秀传统文化
VI. Protecting and Carrying Forward the Excellent Traditional Culture


在漫长的历史发展过程中,藏族人民创造了辉煌的藏文化。藏文化丰富了中华文化,是中华文化的重要组成部分。自治区成立50年来,在尊重、保护、传承和弘扬藏民族优秀传统文化方面,做了大量工作,取得显著成就。当今西藏,在传统与现代的交融中,藏文化不断焕发出新的活力。
In the long course of history, the Tibetan people have created their own splendid culture that enriches and is an important component of Chinese culture. During the 50 years since its establishment, Tibet Autonomous Region has done much and made remarkable achievements towards respecting, protecting, inheriting, and carrying forward Tibet's excellent traditional culture. Tibetan culture today manifests new vitality by blending tradition and modernity.

藏语文的学习使用得到有效保护。《中华人民共和国宪法》和《中华人民共和国民族区域自治法》均明确规定,各民族都有使用和发展自己的语言文字的自由。西藏学校教育全面实行藏汉双语教育,藏语文在学习中传承。目前,农牧区和部分城镇小学实行藏汉语文同步教学,主要课程用藏语授课。中学阶段开设藏语文课(包括内地西藏中学),其他课程用汉语文授课。在高校和中等专业学校的招生考试中,藏语文作为考试科目,成绩计入总分。学前、中小学现有双语教师30642人,中小学校有藏语专任教师约5800人。西藏自治区已编译完成从小学到高中共13门学科的821种课本、410种教学参考书、56种教学大纲或课程标准和73种教学辅助用书。
Tibetan language learning is efficiently protected. The Constitution of the People's Republic of China and Law of the People's Republic of China on Regional Ethnic Autonomy both specify that every ethnic group has the freedom to use and develop its own language. Bilingual teaching in Tibetan and Chinese is carried out in all schools in Tibet to inherit the Tibetan language in the course of learning. At present, synchronous bilingual teaching is conducted at primary schools in agricultural and pastoral areas and certain cities and towns of the Region, and major courses are taught in Tibetan. Middle schools (including inland Tibetan middle schools) have Tibetan language courses, and other courses are taught in Chinese. Tibetan language is listed as an exam subject in college and secondary vocational school entrance exams and so figures in the final score. There are now 30,642 bilingual teachers in kindergartens, primary and middle schools, and 5,800 teachers of Tibetan language in primary and middle schools. Tibet Autonomous Region has compiled 821 textbook titles for 13 courses, 410 reference books, 56 syllabuses and curriculum standards, and 73 supplementary books.

藏语文在使用中得到弘扬。自治区大型会议和行文坚持使用藏汉两种文字,司法机关在执法、法治宣传等工作中着重使用藏语文,农牧、科技等涉农部门也加强藏语文的使用。2014年,西藏人民出版社、西藏藏文古籍出版社出版各类图书547种、1302.5万册,其中藏文图书种数占比超过80%;共有14种藏文期刊、11种藏文报纸出版发行。目前,西藏人民广播电台共开办有42个藏语(包括康巴话)节目(栏目),藏语新闻综合频率每天播音达21小时15分钟,康巴话广播频率每天播音18小时,西藏电视台藏语卫视实现了24小时滚动播出。此外,藏语文在邮政、通讯、交通、金融等领域中也得到了广泛使用,有力地推动了全区经济社会的快速发展。
Use of the Tibetan language is being popularized. Tibetan and Chinese are used in important meetings and their documents held in the autonomous region; Tibetan is the first choice for judicial organs in publicizing legal knowledge and law enforcement, and its use is also stressed by departments related to agriculture and technology. In 2014, Tibet People's Publishing House and Tibetan Ancient Books Publishing House published altogether 547 book titles totaling 13.025 million copies, more than 80 percent of which were in Tibetan. The Region publishes 14 Tibetan-language periodicals and 11 Tibetan-language newspapers. At present, Tibet People's Broadcasting Station broadcasts 42 Tibetan-language programs (including Kangba language) each day, including 21 hours and 15 minutes of news in Tibetan language and 18 hours of Kangba programs. Tibetan TV airs 24 hours of Tibetan-language programs. Wide use of the Tibetan language in postal services, communications, transport, and finance also promotes the autonomous region's rapid social and economic development.

优秀传统文化得到保护传承。国家建立了西藏大学、西藏民族大学、藏医学院、中国藏学研究中心、西藏社会科学院、天文历算研究所等一批教育培训基地和门类齐全的研究机构。几十年来,西藏先后组织了大规模、有系统的普查、搜集、整理、研究和出版工作,收集各种音乐(歌曲)、曲艺一万多首,文字资料3000多万字,录制了大量音像资料,拍摄图片近万幅,发表有关藏民族传统文化学术论文1000多篇,整理出版了《中国戏曲志·西藏卷》《中国民族民间舞蹈集成·西藏卷》《中国民族民间器乐曲集成·西藏卷》等10大文艺集成志书和文艺研究专著30多部,抢救、整理、出版藏文古籍261部,诸多濒临灭绝的民族民间文化得到全面抢救和有效保护,重新焕发出光彩。2005年西藏非物质文化遗产普查与保护工作正式启动以来,中央政府和西藏投资近2亿元,对藏戏、格萨尔、传统歌舞、手工技艺等重要非物质文化遗产进行了全面保护,基本形成了国家、自治区、市、县四级非物质文化遗产名录体系。目前,西藏各类非物质文化遗产项目1000余项,涵盖了非物质文化遗产包含的10个资源种类。其中,藏戏和《格萨尔》史诗入选联合国教科文组织人类非物质文化遗产代表作名录,国家级非物质文化遗产项目89个,国家级生产性保护示范基地4个,自治区级项目323个,代表性传习场所113处。国家级代表性传承人68名,自治区级传承人350名。国家珍贵古籍158部,全国古籍重点保护单位4个。“中国民间文化艺术之乡”4个,“西藏自治区民间文化艺术之乡”65个。拉萨雪顿节、山南雅砻文化节等一大批群众性文化传统节庆得到恢复和创新,成为地域性民族文化品牌。
Excellent traditional culture is protected and inherited. The state has founded education centers and research institutes, such as Tibet University, Xizang Minzu University, Tibetan Traditional Medical College, China Tibetology Research Center, Tibetan Academy of Social Sciences, and Tibetan Institute of Astronomy, all of which cover extensive studies. Over the decades, Tibet has organized large-scale and systematic campaigns to restore its traditional culture, having collected more than 10,000 pieces of music, songs and folk art forms, and more than 30 million words of written texts. It has also recorded copious audios and videos, taken about 10,000 photos, and published more than 1,000 papers on Tibetan ethnic and traditional culture and 10 volumes on Tibetan arts, such as Chinese Drama - Tibetan Volume, Collection of Folk Dances of Chinese Ethnic Groups - Tibetan Volume, and Collection of Chinese Ethnic and Folk Music - Tibetan Volume. It has moreover published more than 30 treatises on Tibetan culture, having restored, reorganized and published 261 Tibetan ancient books. All these efforts help to save, protect and revitalize endangered ethnic and folk culture. Since 2005, when the work of surveying and protecting Tibetan intangible cultural heritage was officially launched, the central government and Tibet have channeled about 200 million yuan into efforts to preserve items of important intangible heritage, such as Tibetan opera, Gesar, traditional singing and dancing, and craftsmanship, thus forming a four-level intangible heritage protection category at the state, autonomous region, prefecture, and county level. Currently, there are more than 1,000 intangible heritage items covering 10 categories as defined on the intangible heritage list. Among them, Tibetan opera and Gesar have been chosen as Masterpieces of UNESCO Intangible Heritage of Humanity, and 89 are on the state level intangible heritage list. There are four production pilots under state level protection and 323 items under the autonomous regional protection, 113 sites for the teaching and learning of intangible heritage, and 68 state level inheritors and 350 inheritors at the autonomous region level. The Region is home to 158 precious ancient books and four state key protection units, four Hometowns of Chinese Folk Art, and 65 Hometowns of Folk Art in Tibet Autonomous Region. Traditional festivals such as the Shoton Festival and Yarlung Cultural Festival have been resumed and innovated, so becoming local cultural brands.

文物得到有效保护。50年来,国家不断加大对西藏文物保护的投入力度,重点实施了西藏自治区所辖的文物保护单位文物保护维修工程,及时修缮和保护了大批文物。投资10亿余元的“十二五”46项重点文物维修保护项目,目前进展顺利。《西藏自治区文物保护条例》《西藏自治区布达拉宫保护管理办法》等一批文物保护地方性法规陆续出台。西藏重要历史和革命文物发掘工程有效加强,第三次全区不可移动文物普查工作全面完成,共调查录入近现代重要史迹及代表性建筑物241处,各类文物点4277处。首次可移动文物普查工作全面启动,初步统计,全区可移动文物将达数百万件。野外文物看管人员得到落实,全区文物安全进一步加强。贝叶经普查保护和研究工作取得阶段性成果,《西藏自治区珍藏贝叶经总目录》《西藏自治区珍藏贝叶经影印大全》等陆续整理出版。目前,全区有世界文化遗产1处3点,国家重点文物保护单位55处,自治区级文物保护单位391处,市县级文物保护单位978处,国家历史文化名城3座。
Cultural relics are under effective protection. Over the past 50 years, the state has constantly renewed its efforts to protect Tibetan cultural relics, particularly with regard to the maintenance and protection of cultural relics under the jurisdiction of Tibet Autonomous Region, restoring and saving them in a timely manner. The 46 key cultural relics renovation and protection projects listed in the 12th Five-year Plan at a cost of more than one billion yuan is proceeding smoothly. Relevant local regulations have been issued, such as the Regulations of Tibet Autonomous Region on the Protection of Cultural Relics, and the Measures of Tibet Autonomous Region for the Protection and Management of the Potala Palace. Excavation of important historical and revolutionary cultural relics has been strengthened, and the third survey of immovable cultural relics across the Region is complete, which recorded 241 important historical sites and renowned architectures and 4,277 cultural relics sites of all kinds. The first survey of movable cultural relics has also been launched. According to statistics, there are millions of such relics across the Region. Security staff has been assigned to guard cultural relics in the wild, so further strengthening the security of cultural relics across the Region. Phased progress has been made in survey, protection and research of Pattra-leaf Scriptures, and The Tibet Autonomous Region Pattra-leaf Scripture Catalogue and Photocopy of Tibet Autonomous Region Pattra-leaf Scriptures have been published. Currently there is one world cultural heritage site spread over three places, 55 cultural relics protection units at state level, 391 at autonomous region level, 978 at city and county level, and three state historical and cultural cities.



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