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双语:民族区域自治制度在西藏的成功实践(8)

2015-09-17    来源:chinadaily    【      美国外教 在线口语培训

八、推进生态文明建设
VIII. Promoting Ecological Progress


西藏是中国重要的生态安全屏障。多年来,西藏自治区政府遵循经济规律、社会规律和自然规律,注重经济、社会、生态的和谐统一,坚持走可持续发展之路。近年来,自治区政府提出了建设西藏生态安全屏障以及建设生态西藏、美丽西藏的战略目标,对西藏的生态环境保护与建设进行全面规划和部署。
Tibet is an important ecological safety barrier in China. Over past decades, in keeping with economic, social and natural laws, Tibet has followed a sustainable path compatible with the harmonious coexistence of economy, society, and the ecological environment. In recent years, with the strategic objectives of building an ecological safety barrier as well as an ecologically healthy and beautiful Tibet, the regional government has drawn up systematic plans to build and protect Tibet's ecological environment.

西藏生态安全屏障保护与建设规划全面实施。2009年2月18日国务院第50次常务会议审议通过了《西藏生态安全屏障保护与建设规划(2008—2030年)》(以下简称《规划》),提出投资155亿元,到2030年基本建成西藏生态安全屏障。截至目前,共落实投资56.46亿元,《规划》确定的天然草地保护工程、森林防火及有害生物防治工程、野生动植物保护及保护区建设工程、重要湿地保护工程、农牧区传统能源替代工程、防护林体系建设工程、人工种草与天然草地改良工程、防沙治沙工程、水土流失治理工程、生态安全屏障监测工程3大类10项工程得到全面实施。
Plans to build and protect Tibet as an ecological safety barrier have been carried out. On February 18, 2009, the 50th executive meeting of the State Council deliberated and approved the Plan for Ecological Safety Barrier Protection and Improvement in Tibet (2008-2030), aiming to complete building the Tibet ecological safety barrier by 2030 with an investment of 15.5 billion yuan. So far, 5.646 billion yuan has been spent on the project. The 10 projects in three categories specified in the Plan, including natural grassland protection, forest fire prevention and pest control operation, wild animal and plant protection and nature reserves construction, key wetland protection, energy substitution program in agricultural and pastoral areas, shelterbelt network building, man-made grassland and deteriorated pastureland improvement, desertification control, water and soil conservation, and ecological safety barrier monitoring, are in full swing.

生物多样性与重要生态功能区得到有效保护。目前,西藏已建立各级各类自然保护区47处,总面积41.22万平方公里,约占全区国土面积的34.35%。建立生态功能保护区22个(国家级2个)、国家级风景名胜区4个、国家森林公园9个、国家湿地公园10个、地质公园4个(国家级3个),使西藏拥有的141种国家重点保护野生动物、38种国家重点保护野生植物和196种西藏特有动物物种、855种西藏特有植物物种以及重要生态系统得到了有效保护。西藏大中型野生动物种群数量居全国前列,藏羚羊种群数量由1995年的5万-7万只上升到目前的20万只以上,黑颈鹤由1995年的1000-3000只上升到目前的7000只左右,野牦牛、藏野驴等珍稀濒危野生动物种群数量稳中有增。
Biological diversity and key ecological reserves are under effective protection. Currently, Tibet has 47 nature reserves, which cover 412,200 sq km, or 34.35 percent of the total land area of the entire Region. It has also set up 22 ecological reserves (two at state level), four state level scenic spots, nine national forest parks, 10 national wetland parks, and four geological parks (three at state level), wherein 141 wild animal species and 38 species of wild plants are under state protection, 196 indigenous animal species, and 855 indigenous plants and important ecological systems are under effective protection. The large and medium-sized wildlife populations of Tibet lead the country: numbers of Tibetan antelopes have grown from 50,000 to 70,000 in 1995 to more than 200,000, and black-necked cranes from 1,000 to 3,000 in 1995 to 7,000. Numbers of such rare and endangered species as wild yaks and Tibetan wild donkeys are also steadily growing.

林业和草原生态建设成效显著。据2014年第八次全国森林资源清查结果,西藏森林覆盖率已达11.98%,森林面积1471.56万公顷,森林蓄积量22.62亿立方米,天然林蓄积22.61亿立方米、乔木林单位面积蓄积267立方米/公顷、重点公益林面积1011.27万公顷。西藏已经创造了人均森林面积、森林蓄积、天然林蓄积、乔木林蓄积、重点公益林面积5项指标全国第一。第四次与第三次全国荒漠化和沙化监测结果比较,西藏荒漠化土地减少了7.89万公顷,沙化土地减少了6.57万公顷,全区荒漠化和沙化土地扩展趋势得到遏制并首次出现逆转。截至2014年底,西藏有天然草地面积8433万公顷,其中可用天然草地面积7067万公顷。
Ecological development in forestry and grassland is making remarkable progress. According to the eighth national survey of forest resources conducted in 2014, the Region's forest coverage rate was as high as 11.98 percent, covering a total area of 14.7156 million ha. Wood stock accounted for 2.262 billion cubic meters of forest, 2.261 billion cubic meters of virgin forest, and 267 cubic meters per ha. of high forest. The key non-commercial forest totals 10.1127 million ha. Tibet leads the country in terms of per capita forest coverage, stock of forest, virgin forest and high forest, and area of key non-commercial forest. Compared with the third national survey of desertification and sandification, the fourth survey shows a 78,900 ha. decline in desertification and 65,700 ha. decline in sandification in Tibet. This signifies that the situation has been checked and is now taking a turn for the better. By the end of 2014, there was 84.33 million ha. of natural grassland in Tibet, 70.67 million of which is usable.

生态补偿试点工作深入推进。中央在西藏实施森林、草地等生态补偿政策,每年全区落实各类补偿资金40余亿元。国家制定《西藏自治区森林生态效益补偿基金管理办法》,从2010年起,中央财政每年安排森林生态效益补偿资金7.72亿元,对全区生态公益林实施补偿。在2009-2010年5个县开展草原生态保护奖励机制试点工作的基础上,2011年开始在全区74个县区全面实施草原生态保护补助机制政策,每年落实补助奖励资金20.0981亿元,既保护了草原生态环境,又促进了农牧民增收。国家实施了重点生态功能保护区转移支付政策,将西藏18个县纳入了国家重点生态功能区转移支付范围,2014年落实资金10.83亿元。这些措施有效保护了国家和自治区重点公益林、基本草原及重要生态区域。
Eco-compensation pilot work is progressing. The central government applies eco-compensation policies to forest and grassland etc., in Tibet, having allocated more than four billion yuan each year to the Region. The state has also formulated the Measures for Management of Eco-Compensation Funds for Forest in Tibet Autonomous Region. From 2010, the central budget began granting annual 772 million yuan of eco-compensation to the Region's non-commercial forest. Based on the pilot work to award grassland ecological protection to five counties from 2009 to 2010, in 2011 a policy to subsidize grassland ecological protection was fully implemented in 74 counties across the Region. It entailed spending 2.00981 billion yuan of subsidies and awards each year on protecting the grassland environment and increasing the income of farmers and herdsmen. The state has implemented the transfer payment policy in key ecological reserves, covering 18 counties of Tibet and spending 1.083 billion yuan in 2014. These measures help to protect key non-commercial forest, prime grassland and key ecological areas.

生态文明制度建设先行先试。2014年,国家发展和改革委员会等六部门联合印发了《关于开展生态文明先行示范区建设(第一批)的通知》,西藏山南地区、林芝地区被列为首批生态文明先行示范区,将着力在独立进行环境监督和行政执法、完善污染物排放许可制和企业单位污染物排放总量控制制度、建立生态环境损害赔偿责任终身追究制等方面先行先试,探索自然生态资源丰富、生态区位重要、边疆民族贫困地区生态文明建设的有效模式。
Tibet takes the lead in building ecological culture. In 2014, the National Development and Reform Commission and five other departments jointly issued the Notice on Building Ecological Culture Demonstration Areas (The First Group), listing Shannan and Nyingchi prefectures as the first group, which will take the lead in conducting independent environmental monitoring and enforcing environmental laws, improving the pollution discharge permit system and enterprise pollutant cap control system, and establishing a lifelong accountability system for environmental damage to explore effective models for building ecological culture in impoverished border areas mostly inhabited by ethnic minorities with rich ecological resources and value.

中科院和相关部门的监测评估显示,西藏高原各类生态系统结构整体稳定,生态质量稳定向好。西藏生态系统类型拥有除海洋生态系统之外的所有陆地生态系统类型,仍然是中国和全球重要的生物物种基因库和生物多样性保护重点地区。水、气、声、土壤、辐射及生态环境质量均保持良好状态,全区的江河、湖泊、森林、草场、湿地、冰川、雪山和野生动植物等都得到了有效保护,大部分区域仍处于原生状态。
As the surveys and evaluations of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and relevant departments show, Tibet Plateau boasts a stable and balanced ecological system with a stable eco-quality. Encompassing all terrestrial ecosystems, the Tibetan ecosystems remain important gene pools of China and the entire globe's biological species, and a key area for biodiversity conservation. Its water, air, noise, soil, radiation, and ecological and environmental quality all remain in good condition, and its rivers, lakes, forests, grasslands, wetlands, glaciers, snow mountains, and wildlife are all under effective protection, most in the Region maintaining their original natural state.



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