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美国历届总统故事:詹姆斯 门罗

2015-12-23    来源:网络    【      美国外教 在线口语培训

美国历届总统故事:詹姆斯 门罗

On New Year's Day, 1825, at the last of his annual White House receptions, President James Monroe made a pleasing impression upon a Virginia lady who shook his hand.
1925年新年前夕,詹姆斯·门罗总统在他任期的最后一次白宫晚宴上给一位弗吉尼亚州女士留下了深刻印象。

"He is tall and well formed. His dress plain and in the old style.... His manner was quiet and dignified. From the frank, honest expression of his eye ... I think he well deserves the encomium passed upon him by the great Jefferson, who said, 'Monroe was so honest that if you turned his soul inside out there would not be a spot on it.' "
他身材高大,体形健美。他身着旧式服装。他不卑不亢,极富尊严。通过他真诚的眼神中,我觉得他配得上伟大的杰弗逊总统对他的赞美。杰弗逊总统曾说门罗的灵魂洁白无暇,即使将它们完全展现出来也看不到一丝污痕。

Born in Westmoreland County, Virginia, in 1758, Monroe attended the College of William and Mary, fought with distinction in the Continental Army, and practiced law in Fredericksburg, Virginia.
门罗于1758年出生在弗吉尼亚州韦斯特摩兰县。他就读于威廉玛丽学院,随后光荣地参与了独立战争,后来在弗吉尼亚州弗雷德里克斯堡参政。

As a youthful politician, he joined the anti-Federalists in the Virginia Convention which ratified the Constitution, and in 1790, an advocate of Jeffersonian policies, was elected United States Senator. As Minister to France in 1794-1796, he displayed strong sympathies for the French cause; later, with Robert R. Livingston, he helped negotiate the Louisiana Purchase.
年轻的政治家罗门在弗吉尼亚议会中加入了反联邦党,该党最终促成了美国宪法的建立。在1798年,积极倡导杰弗逊思想的门罗被选为美国参议员。1794-1796年间,门罗担任美国驻法大使,期间他表达了对法国革命的强烈支持。随后他和罗伯特·R·利文斯顿共同与法国协商,实现了对路易斯安那的购买。

His ambition and energy, together with the backing of President Madison, made him the Republican choice for the Presidency in 1816. With little Federalist opposition, he easily won re-election in 1820.

他的雄心壮志以及来自麦迪逊总统的支持让他在1816年成为了共和党总统候选人。尽管受到小部分联邦党的反对,他依旧在1828年轻松连任。

Monroe made unusually strong Cabinet choices, naming a Southerner, John C. Calhoun, as Secretary of War, and a northerner, John Quincy Adams, as Secretary of State. Only Henry Clay's refusal kept Monroe from adding an outstanding Westerner.
门罗在内阁人员安排上做出了出人意料的决定,组建了一个强有力的内个。他任命南方代表约翰·C卡尔霍恩为国防部部长,任命北方代表约翰·昆西·亚当斯为国务卿。因为亨利·克莱的拒绝,门罗未能在内阁中添加一位出色的西方代表。

Early in his administration, Monroe undertook a goodwill tour. At Boston, his visit was hailed as the beginning of an "Era of Good Feelings." Unfortunately these "good feelings" did not endure, although Monroe, his popularity undiminished, followed nationalist policies.
在执政早期,门罗展开了一趟慈善之旅。这趟以波士顿为起点的旅程被称为“善意时代”的开端。尽管门罗富有民族主义的政策没有降低他个人的受欢迎程度,但“善意时代”却并没有持续下去。

Across the facade of nationalism, ugly sectional cracks appeared. A painful economic depression undoubtedly increased the dismay of the people of the Missouri Territory in 1819 when their application for admission to the Union as a slave state failed. An amended bill for gradually eliminating slavery in Missouri precipitated two years of bitter debate in Congress.
在民族主义的假象下,国家内部出现了裂痕。1819年,密苏里州以蓄奴州加入联邦的提案被否决,密苏里州随后经历了两年的经济困难期。国会也对逐渐消除密苏里州蓄奴制度的法案进行了两年的辩论。

The Missouri Compromise bill resolved the struggle, pairing Missouri as a slave state with Maine, a free state, and barring slavery north and west of Missouri forever.
最终《密苏里妥协案》解决了这一问题。作为蓄奴州的密苏里和作为自由州的缅因共同加入联邦,并在密苏里划分出了蓄奴的南北范围。

In foreign affairs Monroe proclaimed the fundamental policy that bears his name, responding to the threat that the more conservative governments in Europe might try to aid Spain in winning back her former Latin American colonies. Monroe did not begin formally to recognize the young sister republics until 1822, after ascertaining that Congress would vote appropriations for diplomatic missions. He and Secretary of State John Quincy Adams wished to avoid trouble with Spain until it had ceded the Floridas, as was done in 1821.
在外交事务方面,以门罗命名的《门罗宣言》成为了美国基础外交政策。欧洲一些保守政府或将帮助西班牙夺回拉丁美洲殖民地,《门罗宣言》是对这种威胁的回应。在明确这种行为将被过会判为滥用外交职权后,门罗直到1822年才正式承认这些年轻的姐妹共和国。他与国务卿约翰·昆西·亚当斯一直避免与西班牙正面交锋,但在1821年,美国从西班牙手中夺取了弗罗里达。

Great Britain, with its powerful navy, also opposed reconquest of Latin America and suggested that the United States join in proclaiming "hands off." Ex-Presidents Jefferson and Madison counseled Monroe to accept the offer, but Secretary Adams advised, "It would be more candid ... to avow our principles explicitly to Russia and France, than to come in as a cock-boat in the wake of the British man-of-war."
拥有强大海军的英国也反对对拉丁美洲的二次侵略,并建议英美联手,提倡“放手”。前总统杰弗逊和麦迪森都赞同与英国合作,但国务卿亚当斯却提出反对,他说:“公开向俄罗斯和法国表达我们的观点要比与英国联手显得更真诚。”

Monroe accepted Adams's advice. Not only must Latin America be left alone, he warned, but also Russia must not encroach southward on the Pacific coast. ". . . the American continents," he stated, "by the free and independent condition which they have assumed and maintain, are henceforth not to be considered as subjects for future colonization by any European Power." Some 20 years after Monroe died in 1831, this became known as the Monroe Doctrine.
门罗接受了亚当斯的建议。他不仅提出他国不再侵略拉丁美洲,更警告俄国不要向南侵占太平洋沿岸。他说:“美洲大陆拥有并将永久保持自由独立,不应在未来被欧洲列强当作殖民的对象。”在他去世二十多年后,这种观点被人们称作门罗主义。



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