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美国历届总统故事:约翰 昆西 亚当斯

2015-12-24    来源:网络    【      美国外教 在线口语培训

美国历届总统故事:约翰 昆西 亚当斯

The first President who was the son of a President, John Quincy Adams in many respects paralleled the career as well as the temperament and viewpoints of his illustrious father. Born in Braintree, Massachusetts, in 1767, he watched the Battle of Bunker Hill from the top of Penn's Hill above the family farm. As secretary to his father in Europe, he became an accomplished linguist and assiduous diarist.
约翰·昆西·亚当斯是美国历史上第一位担任总统的前总统之子,他的政治生涯和气质观点也与他杰出的总统父亲十分相似。亚当斯成长于马萨诸塞州布雷茵特里。1767年,他在自家的农场山顶上目睹了邦克山战役。随后随父亲前往欧洲,并担任他的秘书。他成为了一名成功的语言学家和勤奋的作家。

After graduating from Harvard College, he became a lawyer. At age 26 he was appointed Minister to the Netherlands, then promoted to the Berlin Legation. In 1802 he was elected to the United States Senate. Six years later President Madison appointed him Minister to Russia.
从哈佛大学毕业后,亚当斯成为了一名律师。26岁时,他被任命为驻荷兰大臣,随后被提升为驻柏林公使。1802年,他被选为美国参议员。六年后,总统麦迪逊任命他为驻俄罗斯大臣。

Serving under President Monroe, Adams was one of America's great Secretaries of State, arranging with England for the joint occupation of the Oregon country, obtaining from Spain the cession of the Floridas, and formulating with the President the Monroe Doctrine.
任职于门罗总统执政期间,亚当斯成为了美国历史上最伟大的国务卿之一。他与英国协商共同收回俄勒冈州,从西班牙手中夺回弗罗里达,与总统共同创建了门罗主义。

In the political tradition of the early 19th century, Adams as Secretary of State was considered the political heir to the Presidency. But the old ways of choosing a President were giving way in 1824 before the clamor for a popular choice.
在19世纪的政治传统中,国务卿往往被认为是总统的接班人。但在1824年,这种传统总统选举方式让位于票选热门人选。

Within the one and only party--the Republican--sectionalism and factionalism were developing, and each section put up its own candidate for the Presidency. Adams, the candidate of the North, fell behind Gen. Andrew Jackson in both popular and electoral votes, but received more than William H. Crawford and Henry Clay. Since no candidate had a majority of electoral votes, the election was decided among the top three by the House of Representatives. Clay, who favored a program similar to that of Adams, threw his crucial support in the House to the New Englander.
在当时仅有的共和党中,地方主义和党派主义愈演愈烈,每个地方推选出一名候选人参加总统选举。作为北方候选人的亚当斯在民众威望和选票上都落后于安德鲁·杰克逊,但领先于威廉·克劳福德和亨利·克莱。鉴于没有一人在票选上有领先优势,众议院决定在前三名中选出总统。克莱支持的项目与亚当斯的非常相似,他在众议院选举中将关键一票投给了亚当斯。

Upon becoming President, Adams appointed Clay as Secretary of State. Jackson and his angry followers charged that a "corrupt bargain" had taken place and immediately began their campaign to wrest the Presidency from Adams in 1828.
成为总统后,亚当斯任命克莱为国务卿。杰克逊与其愤怒的支持者称这是一项“腐败的交易”,他们从1828年起再次开展总统竞选运动,以褫夺亚当斯总统职位。

Well aware that he would face hostility in Congress, Adams nevertheless proclaimed in his first Annual Message a spectacular national program. He proposed that the Federal Government bring the sections together with a network of highways and canals, and that it develop and conserve the public domain, using funds from the sale of public lands. In 1828, he broke ground for the 185-mile C & 0 Canal.
尽管意识到自己将面临国会的敌意,亚当斯依旧在他的首次国情咨文中提出了一个伟大的国家计划。他提议政府通过修建公路和运河将国家各个地区联合起来,通过销售公共土地来巩固疆土。1828年,他发起了史无前例的壮举,长达185英里的切萨皮克-俄亥俄运河开始修建。

Adams also urged the United States to take a lead in the development of the arts and sciences through the establishment of a national university, the financing of scientific expeditions, and the erection of an observatory. His critics declared such measures transcended constitutional limitations.
亚当斯还通过建立全国性大学,赞助科学实验和修建天文台推动了美国人文与科学的发展。这些行为曾被批判超越了宪法的限制范围。

The campaign of 1828, in which his Jacksonian opponents charged him with corruption and public plunder, was an ordeal Adams did not easily bear. After his defeat he returned to Massachusetts, expecting to spend the remainder of his life enjoying his farm and his books.

在1828年的总统竞选过程中,亚当斯的对手杰克逊斥责其贪污腐败。亚当斯艰难面对了这些责难。在总统竞选败北后,亚当斯回到了马萨诸塞州,想要在农场于书本中度过余生。

Unexpectedly, in 1830, the Plymouth district elected him to the House of Representatives, and there for the remainder of his life he served as a powerful leader. Above all, he fought against circumscription of civil liberties.
让人意想不到的是,他在1838年被普利茅斯地区选为众议院成员,他再次成为了一名具有领导力的领导者。他在余生中致力于打破民权的限制。

In 1836 southern Congressmen passed a "gag rule" providing that the House automatically table petitions against slavery. Adams tirelessly fought the rule for eight years until finally he obtained its repeal.
1836年,南方国会通过了一项禁止众议院讨论奴隶制事宜的法令。在随后的八年里,亚当斯不懈地反抗这项法令,这条禁止令最终被废除。

In 1848, he collapsed on the floor of the House from a stroke and was carried to the Speaker's Room, where two days later he died. He was buried--as were his father, mother, and wife--at First Parish Church in Quincy. To the end, "Old Man Eloquent" had fought for what he considered right.
1848年,他在众议院门口中风倒地,后被送往发言室,最终在两日后辞世。与他的父亲、母亲和妻子一样,他也被安葬在昆西的第一教区教堂。这位“雄辩老人”至死都在为他的信仰所奋斗。



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