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美国历届总统故事:安德鲁 杰克逊

2015-12-25    来源:网络    【      美国外教 在线口语培训

美国历届总统故事:安德鲁 杰克逊

More nearly than any of his predecessors, Andrew Jackson was elected by popular vote; as President he sought to act as the direct representative of the common man.
与几乎所有前任总统不同,安德鲁·杰克逊在选举中赢得了广大群众的支持。作为总统,他直接代表着广大群众。

Born in a backwoods settlement in the Carolinas in 1767, he received sporadic education. But in his late teens he read law for about two years, and he became an outstanding young lawyer in Tennessee. Fiercely jealous of his honor, he engaged in brawls, and in a duel killed a man who cast an unjustified slur on his wife Rachel.
1767年,杰克逊出生在卡罗莱纳的一个边远地方。他没有接受过一贯教育,但在青年时代后期曾花两年时间学习法律。他随后在田纳西成为一名优秀的年轻律师。出于对他荣耀的嫉妒,有人与杰克逊发生激烈的争执,一名男子对杰克逊的妻子瑞秋出言不逊。在决斗中杰克逊将这位男子杀死。

Jackson prospered sufficiently to buy slaves and to build a mansion, the Hermitage, near Nashville. He was the first man elected from Tennessee to the House of Representatives, and he served briefly in the Senate. A major general in the War of 1812, Jackson became a national hero when he defeated the British at New Orleans.
他购买大量奴隶,并在纳什维尔附近建立了种植园。他是首位来自田纳西的众议院成员。随后他短暂担任参议员。1812年,杰克逊任总司令出征新奥尔良,大败英国。他顷刻间成为了全国的英雄。

In 1824 some state political factions rallied around Jackson; by 1828 enough had joined "Old Hickory" to win numerous state elections and control of the Federal administration in Washington.
1824年,一些州的政权分支开始向杰克逊靠拢。到1824年,被称为“老山胡桃”的杰克逊已经拥有了足够的追随者。他在多个州中都票数领先,并最终赢得了美国联邦政府的大选。

In his first Annual Message to Congress, Jackson recommended eliminating the Electoral College. He also tried to democratize Federal office holding. Already state machines were being built on patronage, and a New York Senator openly proclaimed "that to the victors belong the spoils. . . . "
在他的首次国情咨文中,杰克逊建议取消选举人团。他还试图推动联邦政府的民主化,加速总统任免权的实现。一位纽约参议院公开将这种行为称为“敬分赃下的胜利者”。

Jackson took a milder view. Decrying officeholders who seemed to enjoy life tenure, he believed Government duties could be "so plain and simple" that offices should rotate among deserving applicants.
杰克逊的手段很温柔。他批判那些享受终身任职的政府官员。他称政府工作职责“清晰而简单”,有资格的应聘者都应该有轮换工作的机会。

As national politics polarized around Jackson and his opposition, two parties grew out of the old Republican Party--the Democratic Republicans, or Democrats, adhering to Jackson; and the National Republicans, or Whigs, opposing him.
随着国家政治在杰克逊和他对手间逐渐两极化,两个党派从旧共和党中独立出来。杰克逊与其追随者成立了民主共和党。杰克逊的对手成立了国家共和党,又称为辉格党。

Henry Clay, Daniel Webster, and other Whig leaders proclaimed themselves defenders of popular liberties against the usurpation of Jackson. Hostile cartoonists portrayed him as King Andrew I.
亨利·克莱和丹尼尔·韦伯斯特以及其他辉格党领导声称他们代表群众的自由意志与篡夺权力的杰克逊进行斗争。杰克逊对手方的漫画师将其绘制成“安德鲁国王一世”。

Behind their accusations lay the fact that Jackson, unlike previous Presidents, did not defer to Congress in policy-making but used his power of the veto and his party leadership to assume command.
来自对手的指责背后有着深层原因。和之前的总统不同,杰克逊并没有顺从国会对国家政策的制定,而是使用自己的否决权已经党派领导权去发布命令。

The greatest party battle centered around the Second Bank of the United States, a private corporation but virtually a Government-sponsored monopoly. When Jackson appeared hostile toward it, the Bank threw its power against him.
杰克逊与国会间的最大斗争源于美利坚合众国第二银行。第二银行虽为私人企业,但本质上是由政府支持的垄断性质银行。杰克逊表达了对银行的敌意,而银行也用其权力压制杰克逊。

Clay and Webster, who had acted as attorneys for the Bank, led the fight for its recharter in Congress. "The bank," Jackson told Martin Van Buren, "is trying to kill me, but I will kill it!" Jackson, in vetoing the recharter bill, charged the Bank with undue economic privilege.
作为银行代表律师的克莱和韦伯斯特在国会中为银行争取特许状。杰克逊对马丁·范布伦说:“银行要杀了我,但我要杀了它。”利用自己的否决权,杰克逊删去了第二银行的政府特许权。

His views won approval from the American electorate; in 1832 he polled more than 56 percent of the popular vote and almost five times as many electoral votes as Clay.
他的思想受到美国选民的青睐。1832年,他的支持率达到56%,几乎是克莱支持率的五倍。

Jackson met head-on the challenge of John C. Calhoun, leader of forces trying to rid themselves of a high protective tariff.
在约翰·C·卡尔霍恩的领导下,摆脱高关税的提议给杰克逊带来了新的挑战。

When South Carolina undertook to nullify the tariff, Jackson ordered armed forces to Charleston and privately threatened to hang Calhoun. Violence seemed imminent until Clay negotiated a compromise: tariffs were lowered and South Carolina dropped nullification.
当南卡罗来纳州决定撤销关税法案时,杰克逊命令武装部队进驻查尔斯顿,并威胁要勒死卡尔霍恩。暴力事件似乎一触即发。最终克莱与杰克逊协商并彼此妥协。关税下调,南卡罗来纳州也删除撤销令。

In January of 1832, while the President was dining with friends at the White House, someone whispered to him that the Senate had rejected the nomination of Martin Van Buren as Minister to England. Jackson jumped to his feet and exclaimed, "By the Eternal! I'll smash them!" So he did. His favorite, Van Buren, became Vice President, and succeeded to the Presidency when "Old Hickory" retired to the Hermitage, where he died in June 1845.
1832年一月某日,总统与朋友在白宫用餐。这时某人向他耳语国会参议院拒绝任命马丁·范布伦为英国外交大使。杰克逊大叫着跳了起来。他说:“我要永远摧毁他们。”他做到了。他的得力干将范布伦成为了副总统并最终担任总统。“老山胡桃”杰克逊退休后回到了种植园,并于1845年离世。



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