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笔译:杨洁篪国务委员法国国际关系研究院的演讲

2016-04-21    来源:外交部    【      美国外教 在线口语培训
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 China’s Development and China-Europe Cooperation: Sources of Positive Energy for the World

– Speech by H.E. Yang Jiechi, State Councilor of the People’s Republic of China, at the French Institute of International Relations
 
14 April 2016
 
Mr. Thierry de Montbrial, Executive Chairman of the IFRI,
Ladies and Gentlemen,
Dear Friends,
 
Good afternoon. I am delighted to come back to this magnificent city for this year’s China-France strategic dialogue. Yesterday, shortly after I arrived in Paris, I had meetings with President Hollande and Foreign Minister Ayrault. This morning, I had a candid, in-depth and productive discussion with Mr. Jacques Audibert, President Hollande’s diplomatic advisor. We reached broad agreement on bilateral ties and major regional and international issues.
 
The French Institute of International Relations is a leading think tank in France and in Europe as a whole. This institute and all of you present today have made important contribution to the mutual understanding between China and Europe in general and between China and France in particular. Let me salute you and thank you for your worthy efforts.
 
I last visited the IFRI six years ago, at a time of deepening global financial crisis and worsening debt problem in this part of the world. The world economy was on the brink of a deep recession. Against that backdrop, the Chinese economy was among the first to turn around, and together, China and Europe sent a powerful message of jointly tiding over the difficult times and pledged to strengthen strategic cooperation based on deepening trust, equality and mutual benefit.
 
Now, six years on, the world economy is yet to emerge from the crisis. It still faces daunting challenges for strong growth. While the Chinese economy is in a new normal of adjustment and reform, the European economy has turned the corner and entered a new phase of steady growth. As China and Europe become increasingly interdependent, we also face a growing number of common challenges.
 
A friend in need is a friend indeed. It is exactly in the course of jointly confronting the financial crisis and global challenges that good chemistry occurs between China and Europe. Increasing communication has brought us closer to each other. More and more Europeans have developed a keen interest in China. They want to know more about China. And they are ready to listen to China.
 
At the moment, how the Chinese economy is doing is a topic of great interest, and this is what I have to say to you. There are many around the world who are optimistic about the Chinese economy. They believe that the new normal in the Chinese economy should be viewed in an objective light and that other countries should readily get accustomed to it. But there are others who have misunderstanding and even bias about the Chinese economy, worrying that it might make a hard landing or even drag down the world economy.
 
What is the real picture then? Let me share with you one latest figure released by China’s National Bureau of Statistics early this month. China’s PMI in the month of March rose above 50%, the departure point between expansion and contraction. And in recent months, investment in fixed assets has rebounded, the housing market has picked up, and the economy as a whole has regained its momentum of growth.
 
The Chinese economy, however, still faces a downward pressure. What’s more, transformation and upgrading are invariably accompanied by some “growing pains”. We will not evade those problems or deny their existence. Rather, we will rise to the challenges with every confidence. People with an objective and comprehensive perspective will see that as an anchor and a source of growth for the world economy, the Chinese economy will continue to inject positive energy to the global economic growth.
 
Such positive energy comes from China’s enormous contribution to the world economy. China’s GDP grew by 6.9% last year. The moderated growth rate is actually the intended result of China’s structural adjustment. The old growth model would certainly have secured China a higher growth rate. But we now value quality as much as speed, if not more. Even a growth rate of 6.9% still places the Chinese economy at the forefront of major economies and represents the biggest increment in the world, equivalent to the GDP of a middle-income country. According to the IMF, China will be contributing 30% to global economic growth up to 2020. And it is worth noting that China is becoming a major contributor to global consumption and investment. For three years in a row, China leads the world in the number of outbound tourists as well as the amount of money they spend. Last year, the value of wine China imported was up 34% year-on-year, reaching a record high of two billion US dollars. A significant amount of that was produced here in France. In the next five years, China will import goods worth over 10 trillion US dollars and make outbound investment of over 600 billion US dollars. Later this year, China will work with other parties to host a successful G20 Summit in the city of Hangzhou. We hope this Summit will help improve global economic and financial governance. Is China a liability or an asset for a slowly recovering global economy? The answer is all too clear.
 
Such positive energy also comes from the good progress in China’s deepening reform. Guided by a vision of innovative, coordinated, green, open and shared development, China is steadily advancing its own structural reform in a bid to lead by example in the broader structural reform of the world economy. Such reform has proved effective. Consumption has overtaken investment as the key driver of the Chinese economy. The share of the services sector in GDP has exceeded 50%. And a more telling sign is that household income and spending are growing faster than GDP. This is very much in line with China’s ultimate goal of development for better livelihood and seen as a new yardstick for China’s economic performance. Inspired by the government’s call of “mass entrepreneurship and innovation”, 12,000 new businesses get registered every day. Many of them are in such “new economy” sectors as Internet Plus, the Internet of Things and e-commerce. In the coming five years, 50 million new jobs will be added, ensuring adequate employment despite a moderated growth rate. The supply-side structural reform that China is pushing forward will further unlock growth potential. I’ll just give you an example. In China, a country with near one fifth of the world’s population, the number of civilian airports is only one twelfth of the world’s total. This illustrates the immense room for growth in China’s infrastructure and services sectors. Some China observers have pointed out that the traditional way of economic analysis, with its excess focus on data in the industry sector, can no longer capture the whole picture of a Chinese economy in transition with structural changes. I think they have made a point here.
 
Such positive energy also comes from China’s resolve and seriousness about opening up further. When it comes to opening-up, China will not shut its door again or backtrack. Because we are keenly aware that retrogression or departure from the opening-up policy will lead us nowhere. China is striving for new progress in its all-round opening-up endeavor. It will widen market access and work on institutional improvement. The Chinese government has taken far-reaching measures to streamline administration and delegate power in the past couple of years. The purpose is to let the market play a decisive role in resource allocation. China has started its new round of reform and opening-up with a pilot free trade zone in Shanghai. New measures introduced in this pilot project, most notably the three lists for government administrative approval, i.e. negative list, accountability list and power list, have gone a long way towards trade facilitation. Such new measures will be rolled out to China’s central and western regions. We will open wider the services and financial sectors and increase market access in an orderly manner. We are committed to facilitating exchanges and cooperation between foreign companies, institutions and individuals with their Chinese counterparts. We will try to do a better job in all these areas. French companies were among the first to enter the Chinese market following China’s launch of its reform and opening-up program. Those French companies have expanded their presence in China in tandem with China’s deepening reform and opening-up. Just to name a few of them. French nuclear companies like EDF and AREVA have been running their business in China for over 30 years. They have established themselves in the world’s largest market for nuclear power. But more than that, their success has led to the thriving business of a large number of SMEs in France. The Taishan Nuclear Power Plant, which is still under construction, is expected to be completed next year and become the world’s first nuclear plant using third generation technology. PSA Peugeot Citro?n has seen its market share in China soaring and performance markedly improved since China’s Dongfeng Motor Group acquired its stake in 2014. Last year, the company turned around to make profits again. These are just a few examples of the kind of cooperation benefiting our two countries.
 
In short, while a growing China has benefited from the world, it will ensure that its own development benefits the world as well. Benefits of development and opportunities for cooperation are what China has to offer to the world.
 
Ladies and Gentlemen,
Dear Friends,
 
As China continues to grow and gets more integrated into the world, the international community is following with great interest not only how its economy is doing but also where its diplomacy is heading. This is especially true for the past few years. China has been more proactive on the diplomatic front to develop friendly ties with other countries. It has also become more active in providing better and more public goods to the world. Such efforts have been well received by many in the world. Nevertheless, there is still speculation about the so-called China’s strategic intention. As a matter of fact, China’s strategic intention cannot be more clear-cut. What we seek are the fulfilment of the two centenary goals (i.e. to complete the building of a moderately prosperous society in all respects and double China’s 2010 GDP and per capita income by the time the CPC celebrates its centenary in 2021; and to build China into a modern socialist country that is prosperous, strong, democratic, culturally advanced and harmonious by the time the People’s Republic of China celebrates its centenary in 2049) and the realization of the Chinese dream of great national rejuvenation. At the same time, we will promote peace and development of the world and work with other countries for a community of shared future for all mankind. China’s development will only mean a greater force for peace and more positive energy for the world.
 
We are committed to a path of peaceful development. We are determined to blaze a new path of peaceful development of a major country in line with our national interests as well as the call of the times for peace, development, cooperation and mutual benefits. We strive to develop ourselves by upholding world peace and better safeguard world peace by building up our own strength. Such a path is inspired by China’s history and culture and the fine diplomatic tradition of New China. It is consistent with China’s national conditions as well as the trend of the world. We know full well that in an increasingly globalized world of deepening interdependence among countries, only through peaceful development can China realize its ambitious goal of national rejuvenation and contribute more to the world. As we pursue peaceful development ourselves, we call on other countries to do likewise. Our commitment to peaceful development does not mean that we can allow our legitimate rights and interests or core national interests to be sacrificed.
 
We are committed to win-win cooperation. China advocates a new type of international relationship centered on win-win cooperation in which countries seek to advance common development through joint efforts. True development should be development for all, and sound development should be sustainable. The international community should find a path of fair, open, comprehensive and innovative development and work for common development. To that end, China has proposed a Silk Road Economic Belt and a 21st Century Maritime Silk Road. Under this initiative, we intend to promote international industrial capacity cooperation, deepen all-round, win-win cooperation with other countries in economy, trade, investment, industry and infrastructure, help the countries involved build capacity for self-development, and create more development opportunities for more countries. We have signed inter-governmental agreements for cooperation on the Belt and Road with over 30 countries, including some European countries. China and France were the first to cooperate in third-country markets, setting up a new model of North-South cooperation. Chinese and French companies are exploring and conducting three-way cooperation in various forms in such African countries as Nigeria, Uganda, Mozambique and Guinea. The Hinkley Point in the UK, a joint project that will involve Chinese and French companies, is another testament to the broad prospect and market space for tripartite cooperation. 
 
We are committed to building various partnerships with all countries. In today’s world, countries have intertwined interests and would rise and fall together. As such, we need to build partnerships with rich substance and in diverse forms at regional and international levels. These partnerships should be equal in nature, meaning that countries will enjoy equal rights and share same obligations with no one playing a more dominant or superior role. They should be peaceful and not targeted against any hypothetical enemy or third party. And they should be inclusive, including not just those who share the same ideal and follow the same path but also those who seek common ground while shelving differences. China has established different forms of partnerships with over 80 countries, regions or regional organizations in an effort to blaze a new trail for state-to-state relations featuring dialogue and partnership rather than confrontation or alliance.
 
We are committed to resolving differences through peaceful means. Be it the Middle East and other international hotspots, or issues concerning China’s territory and maritime rights and interests, China has stayed committed to solving disputes through dialogue and negotiation. Together with European countries and other parties, we have made possible the conclusion of the comprehensive agreement on the Iranian nuclear issue. We have also been actively engaged in the pursuit of a political settlement of the Syrian issue. Dialogue and negotiation have proven the best way toward the most lasting solution at the lowest cost and minimal “after effects”.
 
On the Korean nuclear issue, China is committed to achieving the denuclearization of the Peninsula, upholding peace and stability on the Peninsula, and resolving the relevant issues through dialogue and negotiation. Given the intricate and sensitive situation on the Peninsula, parties should implement the Security Council Resolutions in their entirety, avoid saying or doing anything that might escalate tensions, and refrain from taking any moves that might undermine the security interests of other countries and the strategic balance in the region. China will not permit war or chaos to erupt on the Peninsula or allow some countries to hurt its strategic interests under the excuse of enforcing sanctions. We have put forward the approach of advancing in parallel the denuclearization of the Peninsula and replacement of the armistice treaty with a peace agreement. This proposal reflects China’s commitment to building on the consensus accumulated during the Six-Party Talks, restoring trust among the parties, restarting dialogue and communication, and bringing the Korean nuclear issue under control and back to the track of negotiation.
 
I would also like to say a few words about the South China Sea. The South China Sea is a maritime lifeline on which Asia-Pacific countries rely for their survival and development. No country cares more than China about peace, tranquility and freedom of navigation in these waters. On this issue, we must not be misled by ill-intentioned sensationalization; rather, we need to judge the matter on its own merits.
 
China was the first country to discover, exploit and exercise jurisdiction over the Nansha Islands. After the end of World War II, Japan returned the territories it had stolen from China in accordance with a series of international documents, including the Cairo Declaration and the Potsdam Proclamation, and China recovered in accordance with law the Nansha Islands occupied by Japan. Up till the 1970s, the Nansha Islands had been recognized in various ways, either explicitly or by tacit agreement, as China’s territory by the littoral countries of the South China Sea and the rest of the international community. It was only when oil and gas reserves were discovered in the South China Sea that some countries started to encroach upon and occupy islands and reefs of China’s Nansha Islands. They conducted massive construction there, built various facilities, and even deployed artillery positions, missiles and other offensive weaponry. So when it comes to the South China Sea, the biggest victim is no other than China.
 
China’s construction activities on islands and reefs under its administration do not violate international law. China’s sovereignty over the Nansha Islands and their adjacent waters has been formed in the course of history. It is fully backed by legal evidence. We have deployed on the islands and reefs some necessary facilities of a defensive nature. This is the legitimate right China is entitled to as a sovereign state under international law. Other countries have no right to intervene arbitrarily or make unwarranted comments. Most of our facilities there are built to safeguard the freedom of navigation enjoyed by countries in accordance with international law and to enable China to better fulfill its due responsibility as the largest littoral country of the South China Sea.
 
China maintains that the disputes in question should be resolved through negotiation and consultation between the states directly concerned. This approach is in keeping with international law and basic norms governing international relations. The Philippines unilaterally initiated the South China Sea arbitration. By not accepting or participating in it, China is acting in accordance with law. The arbitration case boils down to territorial sovereignty and maritime delimitation. Article 298 of UNCLOS stipulates that States Parties have the right to make declarations that exclude the application of compulsory procedures in respect of maritime delimitation and other matters. The Chinese government made such a declaration in accordance with law back in 2006. In fact, similar declarations have been made by many other countries. We call on that certain country to give up wishful thinking and stop making political provocation under the guise of law or undermining international law in the name of upholding it. We urge it to return to the negotiating table as soon as possible, implement in good faith the Declaration on the Conduct of Parties in the South China Sea (DOC) jointly signed by China and ASEAN countries, seek peaceful solution to the disputes through negotiation and consultation on the basis of respecting historical facts and international law, and work with us to maintain peace and stability in the South China Sea.
 
Despite the disputes between China and several ASEAN countries over territory and maritime rights and interests, China-ASEAN cooperation has not slowed down. On the contrary, cooperation has picked up speed. Leaders of China and ASEAN countries have close high-level exchanges every year. Last year alone saw visits exchanged between China’s top leader with his counterparts in Vietnam, Indonesia and Singapore. Heads of state from Laos, Cambodia, Myanmar and Timor Leste visited China for events commemorating the 70th anniversary of the victory of the Chinese People’s War of Resistance against Japanese Aggression and the World Anti-Fascist War. We have extensive and in-depth people-to-people and cultural exchanges with ASEAN countries. Last year, mutual visits between China and ASEAN countries hit a record high of more than 23 million. We have conducted pragmatic and productive cooperation in all fields. We have launched high-speed railway and other connectivity projects. China’s cooperation with Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia and Vietnam on production capacity and financial services are making steady progress. Negotiations on an upgraded China-ASEAN FTA have successfully concluded. Last year, China and ASEAN held for the first time the Defence Ministers’ Informal Meeting and the Ministerial Dialogue on Law Enforcement and Security Cooperation. Recently, we successfully hosted the inaugural Lancang-Mekong Cooperation Leaders’ Meeting, adding a new dimension to China-ASEAN cooperation. This year marks the 25th anniversary of China-ASEAN dialogue relations. China will remain committed to the principle of amity, sincerity, mutual benefit and inclusiveness, deepen friendly cooperation with ASEAN countries and make fresh contribution to prosperity and stability in Asia and the world at large.
 
Ladies and Gentlemen, 
Dear Friends,
 
Whatever change may take place in the international landscape, Europe remains an important force on the international arena. We can see that despite the difficulties, challenges and distractions it faces, Europe is making efforts to stay focused and press ahead with its integration process. Its economy has sustained the momentum of recovery. China has full confidence in the future of Europe. China-Europe relationship is always one of our diplomatic priorities. We firmly support European integration and support a united, stable and prosperous EU in playing a still bigger role in international affairs.
 
This year marks the beginning of the fifth decade of China-Europe relations. Looking back at the past four decades, we see a sea change in both Europe and China, two major forces in the world. The European Coal and Steel Community has now evolved into a union, covering 500 million people of 28 countries, while China, once a weak and poor country, has experienced exciting development since it launched its reform and opening-up program. Over the past 40-odd years, China-Europe relations have come a long way. Equality, mutual benefit and win-win cooperation hold the key to the stable and healthy growth of China-Europe relations. Forty years ago, political relations between us were virtually non-existent and engagement was difficult in the early days due to ideological differences. Forty years on, China and Europe have become comprehensive strategic partners who enjoy frequent high-level visits and conduct wide-ranging conversations in more than 70 dialogue and consultation mechanisms spanning different areas and at different levels. Forty years ago, two-way trade between China and Europe was less than three billion US dollars. Forty years on, the figure grew 200-fold to nearly 600 billion US dollars, which means the annual trade volume in the past is now easily done in just two days. The EU has remained China’s top trading partner for 12 years on end, while China has remained the EU’s second largest trading partner for 13 years in a row. Forty years ago, few visits were exchanged between our people. China in the eyes of most Europeans was merely a remote Oriental legend. Forty years on, two-way personnel exchanges between China and the 28 EU member states top 6.41 million. Steady progress is being made in facilitating the travel of our people, further cementing popular support for China-Europe relations.
 
Today, China-EU relations are blessed with a historic opportunity for more rapid growth. In 2014, during his visit to the EU headquarters, President Xi Jinping called on China and Europe to forge partnerships for peace, growth, reform and civilization. His vision gives a new strategic direction to the development of China-EU relations. At the end of last month, President Xi paid a successful visit to the Czech Republic. That was the first time for President Xi to visit a central and eastern European country in his capacity as Chinese president. His visit injected fresh impetus to China’s cooperation with Central and Eastern European countries (CEEC), and sent a clear message of China’s commitment to Europe and its readiness to promote better and faster development of its relations with Europe. Here, I would like to make the following observations on how to advance China-Europe relations going forward:
 
First, we need to cement the basis for political mutual trust. China and Europe are different in development stage, ideology and social system. For our relations to grow steadily and our cooperation to be sustainable, we must trust and respect each other. The two sides should view and promote cooperation with a long-term and strategic perspective in order to expand common interests. We must not allow individual incidents at particular times to affect our overall cooperation. At the invitation of President Xi Jinping, President Hollande and other European leaders will join leaders from other countries at the G20 Hangzhou Summit. This year, we will have some important events such as the 18th China-EU Summit and the 16+1 (CEEC-China) Summit in Riga, during which Premier Li Keqiang will have in-depth discussions with leaders of the EU and European countries on enhancing cooperation. We must use these high-level exchanges and dialogue mechanisms at various levels to increase communication and coordination on issues of respective interest and deepen our political mutual trust.
 
Second, we must continue to enhance practical cooperation. Combined, China and Europe account for one third of the world economy. Sound economic development in China and Europe is crucial for a steady recovery of the world economy. The increasingly grave and complex global economic situation requires greater commitment to openness and cooperation and more firm opposition to trade protectionism of all forms. We should speed up negotiations on the China-EU investment agreement and launch at an early date joint feasibility study on a China-Europe FTA to tap into the potential of bilateral trade and investment cooperation. We need to explore synergy between China’s “Belt and Road” Initiative, its international production capacity cooperation programs and Europe’s development strategies. We should step up efforts to set up a joint investment fund and bring into early operation such cooperation projects as high-speed railway and nuclear energy. We should deepen financial cooperation and increase communication on financial and monetary policies, scale up the size of settlement in local currencies and deepen cooperation within the framework of the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB) and the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD). We should enhance China’s multi-tiered cooperation with EU institutions, EU member states and sub-regions in Europe to enable China-EU relations to grow on a solid basis and in a balanced way.
 
Third, we should strengthen cooperation on global governance. As Europe is facing a serious terrorist threat, China is ready for more counter-terrorism communication with Europe and closer cooperation on intelligence sharing. Last year, thanks to the joint efforts of China and Europe, especially France, the Paris Agreement was reached, ushering in a new process of a global response to climate change. China will work with Europe to push for progress in implementing the Paris Agreement and for that matter, progress in global climate change cooperation. As important participants in global governance, China and Europe should deepen cooperation in upholding world peace, improving economic governance, sustainable development, cyber security and anti-corruption. On a particular note, we should strengthen coordination and cooperation on this year’s G20 Summit in Hangzhou to ensure its success and play a positive role in promoting global growth.
 
Fourth, we must deepen multi-dimensional people-to-people exchanges. Both China and Europe are important forces for the development of human civilization. China is ready to work with Europe under the framework of the high-level people-to-people dialogue to make an overall plan for cooperation in science and technology, education, culture, health, tourism and sports and exchanges between youth and women. We should strive for solid progress on key projects and develop a number of flagship programs. This year, we shall focus our efforts on the high-level people-to-people dialogues between China and Europe, between China and France and between China and the UK, the China-Germany Year of Youth Exchange and the Year of China-CEEC People-to-People Exchange.
 
Ladies and Gentlemen,
Dear Friends,
 
France has a unique influence in the world. It is a champion for the development of the EU. It is also the first major western country to officially establish diplomatic ties with New China. Over the years, our two countries, under the principle of independence and mutual respect, have achieved a high level of political mutual trust and carried out quality and fruitful win-win cooperation, setting a paradigm for the broader China-Europe relations. The strategic importance, great relevance and global influence of our bilateral ties have expanded and enriched China-Europe relations.
 
In 2014, President Xi Jinping paid a successful visit to France, ushering in a new era of close and enduring comprehensive strategic partnership between China and France. Our Presidents and Premiers have had several mutual visits, and our cooperation in civil nuclear energy, aviation, finance and people-to-people exchange has continued to break new ground. France is now China’s important investment destination in Europe, and a popular destination for Chinese tourists, as evidenced by the new record numbers of Chinese visitors in France. We have also maintained good and productive consultation on major international affairs, like global governance, climate change, counter-terrorism, and the Iranian nuclear issue. 
 
Ladies and Gentlemen,
Dear Friends,
 
In the building of the four partnerships between China and the EU, China-France relationship will have an important and special place. China will work with France and other European countries to deepen mutual understanding, increase cooperation and improve the all-dimensional, multi-tiered and wide-ranging patterns of dialogue and cooperation. This way, we will be able to inject a lasting driving force to our comprehensive strategic partnership and contribute more positive energy to world peace and prosperity!
 
Thank you.

 中国发展和中欧合作为世界注入正能量 

 
——杨洁篪国务委员在法国国际关系研究院的演讲
 
2016年4月14日
 
尊敬的德蒙布里亚尔院长,
女士们,先生们,朋友们,
 
大家好!很高兴再次来到美丽的巴黎,出席中法战略对话。昨天,我一到巴黎就同奥朗德总统和艾罗外长举行了会见,今天上午同奥朗德总统的外事顾问奥迪贝尔先生进行了坦诚深入、富有成效的磋商,就双边关系和重大国际、地区问题达成广泛共识。
 
法国国际关系研究院是法国及欧洲最重要的智库之一。研究院和在座的各位专家学者在促进中法、中欧相互了解和理解方面做出了重要努力和贡献,我谨对你们表示诚挚的敬意和感谢!
 
6年前,我曾到访过贵院。当时,国际金融危机仍在发酵,欧债问题持续蔓延,世界经济面临深度衰退危险。中国经济率先回升向好,中欧发出了同舟共济、共克时艰的积极信号,加强了深化互信、平等互利的战略合作。
 
6年过去了,世界经济仍未彻底走出危机阴霾,实现强劲增长仍面临种种挑战。中国经济步入调整改革的新常态,欧洲经济进入企稳增长的新阶段。中欧相互依存不断加深,面临的共同挑战也更加突出。
 
“患难见真情”。正是在共同应对金融危机和全球性挑战的过程中,中欧之间产生了积极正面的“化学反应”。我们的沟通在增加,心灵在走近。越来越多的欧洲人更加关注中国,希望了解中国,愿意倾听中国。
 
目前大家普遍关心中国的经济形势。国际上多数人怀着乐观的期待,主张客观看待并主动适应中国经济“新常态”,但也有人存在误读和偏见,担忧中国经济“硬着陆”,甚至“拖累”世界经济。
 
事实究竟怎样,我想先告诉大家一个最新的数字。中国国家统计局4月初公布,2016年3月,中国制造业采购经理指数(PMI)回到50%的荣枯线以上。近期,中国固定资产投资回升,房地产市场回暖,经济开始出现“企稳回升”的趋势。
 
当然,中国经济仍然面临下行压力,转型升级也必然伴随着阵痛。我们不回避问题,也不否认困难,而是满怀信心地迎接挑战。客观、全面地看,无论现在还是将来,中国经济都是世界经济的稳定之锚、增长之源,将持续为世界经济增长注入正能量。
 
正能量来自于中国对世界经济的巨大贡献。去年中国GDP增速为6.9%,比过去有所放缓,这是中国主动进行结构调整的结果。如果按照旧的增长模式,我们可以实现更高的增速,但我们关心的不只是速度,更是质量。即便如此,中国经济增长率仍居于世界主要经济体的前列,绝对增量全球第一,相当于一个中等国家全年的GDP。据IMF测算,中国将在2020年前贡献30%的世界经济增量。值得一提的是,中国正在成为推动全球消费和扩大全球投资的生力军。中国出境游人数、境外旅游消费已连续三年位居全球第一。去年中国进口的葡萄酒总额同比增长34%,达到创纪录的20亿美元,其中相当大部分来自法国。今后5年,中国进口商品将超过10万亿美元,对外投资将超过6000亿美元。今年,中国将携手各方办好二十国集团杭州峰会,积极促进全球经济金融治理。在世界经济复苏乏力的背景下,中国如此的作用究竟是“拖累”还是“贡献”,答案是不言而喻的。
 
正能量来自于中国深化改革的积极进展。中国正以创新、协调、绿色、开放、共享五大发展理念为指引,持续推进结构性改革,力争为世界经济的结构性调整做表率。事实证明,改革的效果正在显现。消费已经超过投资成为拉动中国经济的主要动力,服务业在国民经济中的比重也已超过50%。中国居民收入增长和消费水平均超过GDP增速,这不仅体现了发展为了民生的根本目标,也成为观察中国经济的新指标。在中国政府“大众创业、万众创新”的倡议下,平均每天新增登记注册企业多达1.2万户,其中很多集中在“互联网+”、物联网、电子商务等“新经济”领域。未来5年中国将增加5000万个就业岗位,这将使中国在经济增速放缓的同时仍然实现较为充分的就业。中国正在大力推进的供给侧结构性改革将进一步释放增长潜力。我举个例子,中国人口占世界近1/5,但民用机场数量却只有世界的1/12。这表明,在基础设施建设和服务业领域,中国仍有巨大的增长空间。国际上有评论称,中国经济正在发生结构性变化,传统经济分析方法过多关注工业领域数据,未能准确展现转型中的中国经济全貌。这不无道理。
 
正能量来自于中国扩大开放的决心和诚意。中国对外开放的大门不会关上,步伐不会倒退。我们非常清楚,中国走回头路,关起大门,都是没有出路的。我们正在积极构建全方位对外开放新格局。我们的市场将更加开放,制度将不断完善。这两年中国政府大规模简政放权,目的就是让市场在资源配置过程中起决定性作用。上海自贸区作为中国新一轮改革开放的起点,为政府行政审批开出了“负面清单”、“责任清单”和“权力清单”三张清单,大大推动了贸易便利化,这一新的开放举措还将向中国中西部地区推广。我们将有序扩大服务业、金融等领域的开放,放宽市场准入。我们致力于为外国企业、机构、人员对华交流合作提供便利。在这些方面,我们会做得越来越好。法国企业是中国实行改革开放后最早一批进入中国市场的外国企业。随着中国改革开放的扩大,法国企业在华业务也不断拓展。法国电力集团、阿海法等核电企业在华经营30多年,不仅在中国这一世界最大的核电市场占据了一席之地,也直接带动了一大批法国中小企业的成长。正在建设的台山核电站,有望于明年竣工并成为全球首座三代核电机组。法国标致雪铁龙集团2014年成功吸引中国东风汽车集团入股以来,在华市场份额迅速扩大,业绩显著改善,去年实现扭亏为盈。这些合作给中法双方都带来了好处。
 
总之,中国的发展得益于世界,也将惠及世界。中国带给世界的是发展的红利和合作的机遇。
 
女士们,先生们,朋友们,
 
随着中国不断发展壮大,深度融入世界,国际社会不仅关注中国经济走势,而且关心中国外交发展方向。尤其是这几年,中国外交更加积极进取,努力发展同各国友好关系,主动提供更多更好的国际公共产品,获得国际社会普遍欢迎,但也有一些人揣测所谓的“中国战略意图”。事实上,中国的战略意图非常明确,就是要实现“两个一百年”奋斗目标和中华民族伟大复兴的中国梦,并促进世界的和平与发展,同各国携手打造人类命运共同体。中国的发展始终是和平力量的增长,是世界正能量的增强。
 
我们致力于走和平发展道路。我们根据自身国家利益以及和平、发展、合作、共赢的时代潮流,下决心走一条大国和平发展的新路子。既通过维护世界和平发展自己,又通过自身实力的提高更好地维护世界和平。这条道路是对中国优秀历史文化和新中国外交优良传统的传承,符合中国国情,顺应世界潮流。我们清醒地认识到,在全球化带来各国相互依存日益加深的世界里,只有坚持和平发展,中国才能实现民族振兴的宏伟目标,才能为世界作出更大贡献。当然,中国走和平发展道路,其他国家也都要走和平发展道路。中国坚持和平发展,但也不会牺牲我们的正当权益,不会以牺牲国家的核心利益为代价。
 
我们致力于推动合作共赢。中国主张构建以合作共赢为核心的新型国际关系,推动各国同舟共济、携手共进。各国一起发展才是真发展,可持续的发展才是好发展。国际社会应努力走出一条公平、开放、全面、创新的发展之路,努力实现各国共同发展。为此,中国提出“一带一路”倡议,积极开展国际产能合作,全面深化同各国在经贸、投资、产业、基础设施等领域互利合作,帮助有关国家提高自主发展能力,为更多国家带来发展机遇。我们同包括一些欧洲国家在内的30多个国家签署了共建“一带一路”政府间合作协议。我们还同法国在世界上率先开展第三方市场合作,开辟了南北合作的新模式。中法企业在尼日利亚、乌干达、莫桑比克、几内亚等非洲国家,正在探讨和开展形式多样的三方合作。中法两国企业即将合作建设的英国欣克利角核电站,进一步展现出三方合作的广阔前景和市场空间。
 
我们致力于同各国建立各种形式的伙伴关系。当今世界,各国利益交融,兴衰相伴,安危与共。我们要在国际和区域层面建设内容丰富、形式多样的伙伴关系。这种伙伴关系具有平等性,各国享有同等权利,承担同样义务,不分主次,不论高低;具有和平性,不设假想敌,不针对第三方;具有包容性,志同道合是伙伴,求同存异也是伙伴。迄今,中国已同80多个国家、地区或区域组织建立了不同形式的伙伴关系,努力走出一条“对话而不对抗,结伴而不结盟”的国与国交往新路。
 
我们致力于以和平方式化解分歧。不论是在中东等国际热点问题上,还是在涉及领土和海洋权益问题上,中国始终致力于通过对话谈判解决争端。我们同欧洲国家及其他各方通力合作,促成了伊朗核问题谈判全面协议的达成,并积极参与叙利亚问题的政治解决进程。事实证明,对话谈判才是代价最小、后遗症最少、最为持久的争端解决之道。
 
在朝鲜半岛核问题上,中方始终坚持朝鲜半岛无核化,坚持维护半岛和平稳定,坚持通过对话谈判解决有关问题。当前半岛局势复杂、敏感,各方都应全面、完整执行联合国安理会涉朝决议,避免采取任何可能加剧局势紧张的言行,不得采取任何可能影响其他国家安全利益和地区战略平衡的举措。中国决不允许半岛生战生乱,决不允许一些国家借制裁之名损害中方战略利益。我们提出并行推进半岛无核化与停和机制转换的思路,致力于在六方会谈积累的共识基础上,重建各方信任,重启对话沟通,把朝核问题拉回到可控、谈判的轨道上来。
 
我还想谈一下南海问题。南海是亚太各国赖以生存发展的海上生命线。维护这片海域的和平、安宁与航行自由,中国看得比谁都重。对于南海问题,我们不应被别有用心的炒作所迷惑,而要依据事实来判断。
 
中国是最早发现、开发并管辖南沙群岛的国家。二战结束后,日本根据《开罗宣言》、《波茨坦公告》等一系列国际文件归还窃取的中国领土,中国依法收复被日本侵占的南沙群岛。直到上世纪70年代,国际社会包括南海沿岸国都以不同方式承认或默认南沙群岛是中国领土。之后,由于南海发现了油气,一些国家开始蚕食和侵占中国南沙岛礁,并大兴土木,修建各类设施,包括部署火炮阵地、导弹等进攻性武器。在南海问题上,中国才是最大的受害者。
 
当前,中国在自己管控的南沙岛礁进行建设,不违反国际法。中国对南沙群岛及其附近海域拥有的主权是历史形成的,是拥有充分法理依据的。我们在岛礁上部署了一些必要的防御设施,这是国际法赋予中国作为主权国家的正当权利。别国无权横加干涉,说三道四。我们在岛礁上建设的大部分设施是为了保障各国依据国际法所享有的航行自由,是为了更好履行作为南海最大沿岸国应尽的责任。
 
中国坚持由直接当事国谈判协商解决南海有关争议,这符合国际法和国际关系基本准则。我们不接受、不参与菲律宾单方面强行提起的南海仲裁案,恰恰是依法行事。中菲南海仲裁案实质是领土主权和海洋划界问题。根据《联合国海洋法公约》第298条规定,缔约国有权就海洋划界等问题发表排除性声明。中国政府早在2006年就依法发表了有关排除性声明。许多国家也发表了类似声明。我们呼吁有关国家放弃不切实际的幻想,停止披着法律外衣的政治挑衅,不要借国际法之名,行破坏国际法之实,而应尽快重新回到谈判桌前,切实落实中国和东盟国家共同签署的《南海各方行为宣言》,在尊重历史事实的基础上,根据国际法,通过谈判和协商和平解决有关争端,共同维护南海和平稳定。
 
尽管中国同个别东盟国家存在领土和海洋权益争端,但中国—东盟合作的步伐没有停顿,而是在加快。中国同东盟国家领导人每年都有密切的高层往来。去年,中国同越南、印尼、新加坡成功实现最高领导人在年内互访,老挝、柬埔寨、缅甸、东帝汶等国元首来华出席“9.3”纪念活动。我们同东盟国家的民间往来和人文交流广泛深入,去年双方人员往来超过2300万人次,创历史新高。我们在各领域均开展了务实有效的合作。中国和东盟国家在高铁等领域一批互联互通合作项目相继启动。中国同马来西亚、新加坡、印尼、越南的产能合作、金融合作不断推进。中国—东盟自贸区升级谈判顺利完成。去年我们首次举办了中国—东盟防长非正式会晤和执法安全合作部长级对话。前不久,我们还成功举办澜沧江—湄公河合作首次领导人会议,为中国—东盟合作充实新内容。今年是中国—东盟建立对话关系25周年。我们将继续秉持亲诚惠容理念,深化同东盟国家的友好合作,为亚洲和世界繁荣稳定作出新的贡献。
 
女士们,先生们,朋友们,
 
无论国际形势如何变化,欧洲始终是国际舞台上的一支重要力量。虽然当前欧洲遇到一些困难和挑战,但我们注意到,欧洲正努力排除各种干扰,坚定推进一体化进程,欧洲经济也保持了复苏势头。我们对欧洲发展的前景充满信心,始终把对欧关系作为中国外交的优先方向之一,坚定支持欧洲一体化进程,支持一个团结、稳定、繁荣的欧盟在国际事务中发挥更大作用。
 
今年是中欧关系第五个十年的开局之年,回首过去四十年,中欧两大国际力量发生了翻天覆地的变化。最初的欧洲煤钢共同体已经发展成涵盖欧洲28国5亿人口的欧洲联盟,中国也从积贫积弱走向改革开放,实现了巨大发展。四十多年来,中欧关系取得巨大进展,平等互利、合作共赢成为中欧关系稳定健康发展的重要经验。四十年前,中欧政治关系从零开始,最初接触中因意识形态差异而步履维艰;四十年后,中欧已成为全面战略伙伴,双方高层互访频繁,在70多个不同领域、不同层级的对话磋商机制中“无话不谈”。四十年前,中欧双边贸易额不足30亿美元;四十年后,双边贸易额增长200倍达到近6000亿美元,两天就可实现过去一年的贸易额,欧盟连续12年保持中国最大贸易伙伴地位,中国则连续13年位居欧盟第二大贸易伙伴。四十年前,中欧人员往来凤毛麟角,中国对于大多数欧洲人只是一个遥远的东方传说;四十年后,中国与欧盟28个成员国间的双向人员往来规模达641万人次,中欧人员往来便利化稳步推进,中欧关系的民意基础愈发坚实。
 
当前,中欧关系面临着乘风破浪、快速前行的历史机遇。2014年,习近平主席在访问欧盟总部期间提出,中欧要携手打造和平、增长、改革、文明四大伙伴关系。这为中欧关系发展指明了新的战略方向。上月底,习近平主席成功访问捷克。这是习主席首次以国家主席身份访问中东欧国家,为中国—中东欧合作注入了新动力,传递出中国重视欧洲,愿意推动中欧关系更快更好发展的明确信息。我愿就下阶段如何发展好中欧关系提出以下建议:
 
一是夯实中欧政治互信的基础。中欧在发展阶段、意识形态、社会制度上存在一定差异,唯有相互信任、相互尊重,双方关系才能稳步前行,彼此合作才能持久深入。双方应以长远的战略眼光看待和推进相互合作,做大共同利益蛋糕,不因一时一事影响合作大局。奥朗德总统等欧洲及其他国家领导人将应习近平主席邀请赴华出席二十国集团杭州峰会。今年还将举行第18次中国欧盟领导人会晤、16+1里加会议等一系列重要活动,李克强总理将与欧盟及欧洲国家领导人就推进彼此合作深入交换意见。我们要通过这些高层交往和各层级对话机制,就各自关心的问题加大沟通协调,深化中欧政治互信。
 
二是坚持不懈推进中欧务实合作。中欧经济体量加起来占世界经济总量的三分之一,中欧经济发展好了,对全球经济复苏就具有重要的稳定作用。世界经济形势越是严峻复杂,越是要坚持开放合作,共同抵制各种形式的贸易保护主义。我们应加快中欧投资协定谈判进程,早日开启中欧自贸区联合可研,释放双边经贸和投资的潜力。要实现中国“一带一路”倡议、国际产能合作与欧洲发展战略的对接,加快打造中欧共同投资基金平台,实现高铁、核能等各领域项目尽快落地、运营。要深化中欧财金合作,加大中欧财金、货币政策的沟通,扩大本币结算规模,深化双方在亚洲基础设施投资银行和欧洲复兴开发银行框架内的合作。要全面推进中国与欧盟机构、欧盟成员国、次区域等不同层面合作,形成中欧关系积累深厚、均衡发展的局面。
 
三是加强在全球治理层面的合作。当前,欧洲面临重大恐怖主义威胁,中方愿与欧方就反恐事务加强工作交流,在信息情报分享等领域推进合作。去年底,在中欧特别是中法两国的共同推动下,各方达成气候变化《巴黎协定》,开启了全球合作应对气候变化的新进程。中方愿继续与欧方一道,推动落实《巴黎协定》,使全球气候变化合作取得新进展。中欧作为全球治理的重要参与者,还应在维护世界和平、改善经济治理、可持续发展、网络安全、反腐败等领域深化合作,特别是围绕今年二十国集团杭州峰会加强协调与合作,确保杭州峰会取得成功,为推动世界经济发展发挥积极作用。
 
四是深化多位一体的人文交流合作。中欧都是推动人类文明发展的重要力量。中方愿在中欧高级别人文交流机制统领下,与欧方统筹规划和梳理整合科技、教育、文化、卫生、旅游、体育、青年、妇女等各领域交流合作,扎实推进重点项目建设,打造一批旗舰工程。今年,我们将重点办好新一轮中欧、中法、中英高级别人文交流对话、“中德青少年交流年”和“16+1人文交流年”等活动。
 
女士们,先生们,朋友们,
 
法国在国际上有独特影响,是欧盟建设的领头羊,也是第一个与新中国正式建交的西方大国。长期以来,中法两国本着独立自主、相互尊重的原则,建立了高水平的政治互信,开展了高质量和富有成果的互利合作,为促进中欧关系发展发挥了重要的引领和示范作用,并以其自身特有的战略性、时代性和全球影响力赋予中欧关系更广阔的空间和更深厚的内涵。
 
2014年习近平主席成功访问法国,开创了紧密持久的中法全面战略伙伴关系的新时代。两国元首、总理多次互访,民用核能、航空、金融、人文等领域合作不断取得新的突破。法国已成为中国在欧洲重要的投资目的地,也是中国公民最喜爱的出境游目的地之一,中国赴法旅游人数屡创新高。双方在全球治理、气候变化、反恐、伊朗核等重大国际事务中沟通顺畅,成绩斐然。
 
女生们,先生们,朋友们,
 
未来,在中欧四大伙伴关系建设中,中法关系仍将占据重要特殊位置。我们愿同法国及其他欧洲国家一道,推动中欧相互理解更加深入,各领域合作更加密切,不断完善全方位、多层次、宽领域的中欧对话合作格局,为中欧全面战略伙伴关系注入持久动力,为世界和平与繁荣贡献更多正能量!
 
谢谢大家!


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