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詹永新大使:请让事实仲裁

2016-05-30    来源:中国驻以色列大使馆    【      美国外教 在线口语培训

请让事实仲裁Let the Facts Arbitrate

驻以色列大使  詹永新
Zhan Yongxin, Chinese Ambassador to Israel
 
最近一段时间,南海问题在国际舆论中不断升温。不少以色列朋友也问我,菲律宾为何发起国际仲裁?而中国又为何拒不接受国际仲裁?这是一个复杂的问题,我在此陈述一些基本事实。
Recently, the South China Sea issue is gaining heat in the international media. Some Israeli friends also ask me questions: why do the Philippines sue China on this issue? Why does China reject the international arbitration? Well, that is a long story. I will try to make it short and clear with the basic facts.
 
我们不妨从南海问题的核心——所谓的“领土争端”说起。
Since the core of this issue is the so-called territorial dispute, let’s start from here.
 
首先,中国是南海问题的实际受害者。中国人最早发现、命名并开发了南海诸岛。历代中国政府也通过行政设置、军事巡航、生产经营、海难救助等方式,持续对南海诸岛进行有效管辖。二战时期,日本曾于1939年起一度侵占了部分南海岛屿。战后,中国依据《开罗宣言》和《波茨坦公告》收回了被占岛屿,并通过正式命名、出版地图、派兵驻守等形式,从法律和事实上对南海诸岛行使主权。上世纪70年代以前,国际社会包括菲律宾等南海沿岸国家从未就中国对南海诸岛的主权提出过质疑。当时有关国家还以外交照会、出版地图、国际会议等方式公开承认中国对南海诸岛的主权。但上世纪70年代时,出现南海蕴藏油气资源的报道后,形势开始出现重大变化。菲律宾等国纷纷蚕食、侵占中国南海岛礁中的南沙群岛。
First, China is actually the victim with regards to the South China Sea issue. The Chinese people were the first to discover, name and develop the South China Sea Islands. Successive Chinese governments have exercised continuous jurisdiction over the islands by means of administrative control, military patrol, production and business operations and maritime disaster relief.
 
In 1939, Japan invaded and illegally occupied the islands. After World War II, in accordance with the Cairo Declaration and the Potsdam Proclamation, China lawfully recovered the islands and resumed exercise of sovereignty through such measures as compiling their official names, publishing maps, setting up administrative units and stationing troops.
 
Before the 1970s, it was widely recognized by the international community that the South China Sea islands belong to China. No country, the Philippines included, ever challenged that. Many Diplomatic Notes, published maps, international conferences of that time recognized China’s sovereignty over the South China Sea Islands.
 
Things changed in the 1970s when there were reports about oil under the South China Sea. The Philippines and some other countries scrambled to occupy China’s Nansha islands and reefs in the South China Sea.
 
其次,菲律宾法定领土范围不包括南海诸岛。菲律宾法定领土范围系由1898年《巴黎条约》、1900年《华盛顿条约》和1930年《英美条约》共同确定。自那时起,菲律宾领土西部界限即为东经118度线。菲独立后,其1935年《宪法》、1946年《美菲一般关系条约》和1961年《关于领海基线的第3046号法令》等也一再确认前述条约的法律效力。南海诸岛在东经118度线以西,自然不在菲法定领土范围内。
Second, the fact that the islands are not the Philippines’ territory is well proven in their own laws. The scope of the Philippines’ territory is defined by the 1898 Treaty of Paris, the 1900 Treaty of Washington and the 1930 Convention between the US and UK. These treaties clearly define that 118 degrees east longitude is the western limit of Philippine territory. The 1935 Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines, the 1946 Treaty of General Relations between the United States of America and the Republic of the Philippines, the 1952 U.S.-Philippines Mutual Defense Treaty, the 1961 Republic Act No.3046, just to name a few, reaffirmed the legal effects of the above-mentioned three treaties again and again. The South China Sea islands and reefs are all located west of that line.
 
第三,菲律宾强推仲裁违背了其既有承诺。本世纪初,菲律宾曾与中国就如何解决南海争端达成过一致。双方曾在2002年《南海各方行为宣言》和2011年《中菲联合声明》中作出过共同承诺:通过双边友好谈判和磋商解决南海争端。但事与愿违的是,菲律宾2013年单方面强推南海仲裁案已使其先前承诺变为彻底的谎言。
Third, the Philippines’ suing China also clearly violates their own commitments on resolving South China Sea disputes. In the early 2000’s, China agreed with the Philippines on how to resolve relevant disputes. Both China and the Philippines are signing parties of the 2002 Declaration on the Conduct of Parties in the South China Sea (DOC), the joint statement in 2011, etc., which all stress to resolve disputes through bilateral negotiation. However, in 2013, the Philippines unilaterally initiated arbitration.
 
也许有人不禁要问,既然中国如此理直气壮,那为何不接受也不参与国际仲裁呢?我想原因正如犹太经典《塔木德》里所说——“要时刻与错误保持距离”。南海仲裁案本身就是个错误。它是错误的,因为中菲南海争议的核心是领土和海洋划界问题,并不属于《联合国海洋法公约》的调整范围。它是错误的,因为中方已于2006年根据《公约》第298条作出声明,将涉及领土争端、海洋划界等问题排除适用强制争端解决程序。包括英国、法国在内的全球30多个国家也已作出类似排除性声明。它是错误的,因为有关领土争端的国际仲裁极易成为国际法实践领域的不良示范,长远看无益于任何一方。
With that in mind, people may still wonder, if China is so justified, why China does not accept or participate in the arbitration. The Torah teaches “Distance yourself from that which is false.” The arbitration is totally a false issue.
 
It is false because that the Philippines’ requests are, in essence, about territorial sovereignty and maritime delimitation, which are not subject to UNCLOS. It is false because that as early as in 2006 China made a clear declaration in accordance with UNCLOS to exclude compulsory arbitration on sovereign disputes and maritime delimitation. More than 30 other countries, including the UK, France, Australia, have made similar declarations. It is false because the very farce of the arbitration itself, if unchecked, will set a false precedent in the practice of international law, which will serve no one’s interest in the long run.
 
事实上,中国政府多年来始终坚持通过谈判协商和平解决南海问题,也始终致力于制定规则、建立机制有效管控现实争议。菲律宾是中国撇不开的邻居,中国也愿意继续向菲律宾敞开对话协商的大门。但无论如何,南海仲裁案的结果都是无效的,对中国也不具任何约束力。我们不禁想问菲方:与其引入域外势力加剧对立冲突,为何不让事实作出仲裁呢?
Having said the above, I’d still like to make it clear that China is committed to resolving the disputes in a peaceful manner through negotiations and consultations, and to managing the disputes by establishing rules and mechanisms. The Philippines are our unmovable neighbors. The door for negotiation and consultation is always open. But the UNCLOS arbitration, no matter what the outcome could be, will be invalid and will have no binding force upon China. Instead of ushering in external forces, why not let the facts arbitrate?


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