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《道德经》(11-14,Arthur Waley版)

2014-03-04    来源:网络    【      美国外教 在线口语培训

《道德经》,道家典籍,又称《道德真经》、《老子》、《五千言》、《老子五千文》,是中国古代先秦诸子分家前的一部著作,为其时诸子所共仰,传说是春秋时期的老子(即李耳)所撰写,是道家哲学思想的重要来源。道德经分上下两篇,原文上篇《德经》、下篇《道经》,不分章,后改为《道经》37章在前,第38章之后为《德经》,并分为81章。是中国历史上首部完整的哲学著作,思想内容微言大义,一语万端。被华夏先辈誉为万经之王。另据联合国教科文组织统计,《道德经》是除了《圣经》以外被译成外国文字发布量最多的文化名著。

第十一章 
               
三十辐共一毂,当其无,有车之用。
埏埴以为器,当其无,有器之用。
凿户牖以为室,当其无,有室之用。
故有之以为利,无之以为用。

Chapter 11

We put thirty spokes together and call it a wheel;
But it is on the space where there is nothing that
the usefulness of the wheel depends.
We turn clay to make a vessel;
But it is on the space where there is nothing that
the usefulness of the vessel depends.
We pierce doors and windows to make a house;
And it is on these spaces where there is nothing
that the usefulness of the house depends.
Therefore just as we take advantage of what is, we
should recognise the usefulness of what is not.

第十二章

五色令人目盲,五音令人耳聋,五味令人口爽,驰骋畋猎令人心发狂,难得之货令人行妨。
是以圣人为腹不为目,故去彼取此。

Chapter 12

The five colours confuse the eyes,
The five sounds dull the ear,
The five tastes spoil the palate.
Excess of hunting and chasing
Makes minds go mad.
Products that are hard to get
Impede their owner's movements.
Therefore the Sage
Consinders the belly not the eye.(1)
Truly, he rejects that but takes this. (2)

1) the belly in this instance means 'what is inside him', his own inner powers.
2) for this use of 'that' and 'this' (i.e. the world outside and the powers within oneself)

第十三章

宠辱若惊,贵大患若身。
何谓宠辱若惊?宠为下,得之若惊,失之若惊是谓宠辱若惊。
何谓贵大患若身?吾所以有大患者,为吾有身;及吾无身,吾有何患。
故贵以身为天下,若可寄天下;爱以身为天下,若可托天下。

Chapter 13

'Favour and disgrace goad as it were no madness; high rank hurts keenly as our bodies hurt.' What does it mean to say that favour and disgrace goad as it were no madness? It means that when a ruler's subjects get it they turn distraught, when they lose it they turn distraught. That is what is meant by saying favour and disgrace goad as it were to madness. What does it mean to say that high rank hurts keenly as our bodies hurt? The only reason that we suffer hurt is that we have bodies; if we had no bodies, how could we suffer? Therefore we may accept the saying: 'He who in dealing with the empire regards his high rank as though it were his body is the best person to be entrusted with rule; he who in dealing with the empire loves his subjects as one should love one's body is the best person to whom one can commit the empire.'

第十四章

视之不见名曰夷,听之不闻名曰希,抟之不得名曰微。此三者不可致诘,故混而为一。其上不徼,其下不昧,绳绳不可名,复归於无物。是谓无状之状,无物之象,是谓惚恍。迎之不见其首,随之不见其後。执古之道以御今之有。能知古始,是谓道纪。

Chapter 14

Because the eyes gazes but can catch no glimpse of it,
It is called elusive.
Because the ear listens but cannot hear it, (1)
It is called the rarefied.
Because the hand feels for it but cannot find it,
It is called the infinitesimal.
These three because they cannot be further scrutinized,
Blend into one.
Its rising brings no light;
Its sinking, no darkness.
Endless the series of things without name
On the way back to where there is nothing.
They are called shapeless shapes;
Forms without forms;
Are called vague semblances.
Go towards them, and you can see no front;
Go after them and you see no rear.
Yet by seizing on the Way that was
You can ride (2) the things that are now.
For to know what once there was, (3), in the Beginning,
This is called the essence (4) of the Way.

(1)This is the traditional description of ghosts and spirits (cf. Doctrine of the Mean, paragraph 16) adopted as a description of the Way.
(2)i.e. dominate.
(3)Macrocosmically, in the Universe. Microcosmically, in oneself.
(4)literally, main-thread.



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