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《道德经》(38)

2014-04-14    来源:网络    【      美国外教 在线口语培训

上德不德,
是以有德。
下德不失德,
是以无德。
上德无为而无以为。
下德无为而有以为。
上仁为之而无以为。
上义为之而有以为。
上礼为之而莫之以应,
则攘臂而扔之。

失道而后德,
失德而后仁,
失仁而后义,
失义而后礼。
夫礼者,
忠信之薄而乱之首。
前识者,
道之华而愚之始。
是以大丈夫,
处其厚,不居其薄。
处其实,不居其华。
故去彼取此。

【现代汉语】

具有上德的人不表现为外在形式的“德”,所以实际上是有“德”;下德的人死守着形式上的“德”,因此实际上是没有“德”。

上德的人顺任自然而无心作为,下德的人在形式上表现“德”并有心做作。

上仁的人有所表现但出于无意,上义的人有所表现却出于有心。

上礼的人有所作为却得不到回应,于是就伸出胳臂,强掣牵拽。

所以,丧失了“道”而后才有“德”,丧失了“德”而后才有“仁”,丧失了“仁”而后才有“义”,丧失了“义”而后才有“礼”。

“礼”这个东西,是忠信的不足,是祸乱的开端。

所谓“先知”,不过是“道”的虚华,是愚昧的开始,因此大丈夫立身敦厚,而不居于浅薄;存心朴实,而不居于虚华。所以要舍弃薄华的“礼”,采取厚实的“道”和“德”。

Chapter 38

A man of the great virtue (Teh)
does not claim to be of virtue,
Thus he is of the true virtue.
A man of the small virtue
always hold fast to the virtue in form,
Thus he is actually of no virtue.
A man of the great virtue remains inactive
Without deliberately manifesting his virtue;
A man of the small benevolence
keeps being active,
Always deliberately manifesting his virtue.
A man of the great benevolence acts
but never deliberately shows his benevolence;
A man of great justice acts
and also deliberately shows his justice.
A man of rigid rites acts
and even rolls up his sleeves
to force people to conform to rites
when no one responds to him.
Therefore
Virtue comes after the loss of Tao;
Benevolence comes after the loss of virtue;
Justice comes after the loss of benevolence;
Rites come after the loss of justice.
Thus rites result from the lack of loyalty and good faith,
And function as the beginning of great disorder.
Foresight is only the flowery embellishment of Tao
As well as the beginning of ignorance.
Hence the true man sets store by the thick rather than by the thin,
And values the fruit rather than the flower.
That is why he takes the former and discards the latter.

(辜正坤 译)

其他版本:

【英译】

(Those who) possessed in highest degree the attributes (of the tao) did not (seek) to show them, and therefore they possessed them (in fullest measure). (Those who) possessed in a lower degree those attributes (sought how) not to lose them, and therefore they did not possess them (in fullest measure).

(Those who) possessed in the highest degree those attributes did nothing (with a purpose), and had no need to do anything. (Those who) possessed them in a lower degree were (always) doing, and had need to be so doing.

(Those who) possessed the highest benevolence were (always seeking) to carry it out, and had no need to be doing so. (Those who) possessed the highest righteousness were (always seeking) to carry it out, and had need to be so doing.

(Those who) possessed the highest (sense of) propriety were (always seeking) to show it, and when men did not respond to it, they bared the arm and marched up to them.

Thus it was that when the Tao was lost, its attributes appeared; when its attributes were lost, benevolence appeared; when benevolence was lost, righteousness appeared; and when righteousness was lost, the proprieties appeared.

Now propriety is the attenuated form of leal-heartedness and good faith, and is also the commencement of disorder; swift apprehension is (only) a flower of the Tao, and is the beginning of stupidity.

Thus it is that the Great man abides by what is solid, and eschews what is flimsy; dwells with the fruit and not with the flower. It is thus that he puts away the one and makes choice of the other.

【备注】

德:属于意识范畴,是人的世界观、社会政治观、人生观和价值观的总和。上德:来源于道或者符合于道的思想意识,具有客观性、全面性。 不德:不固执于自我主观意识。

一个真正觉悟了的人,其所作所为,总是遵循客观规律,从不盲从自我主观愿望,凭感情、意气用事,这样的人才是具有道德的、远见卓识的人。

和“上德”相对的是“下德”,“下德”是没有体悟道的、来源于现象世界的意识、思想、观念,具有局限性和主观片面性。 不失德:固执己见,不能抛开自我主观意识。

一个没有体悟大道的人,总是执着于事物的表面现象,所以,他还没有也不可能获得正确的思想意识。

无为:遵循客观规律而为,让法则发挥作用。 无不为:无所不为。有以为:为了实现个人功利而有所作为。 以:这里是指个人目的。 为之:主观而为,具有片面性。 无以为:无所作为,达不到预期目的。

“上德”之人遵循客观规律,以法治国,所以能够取得无所不为的业绩。“下德”之人强调有为,以智治国,是为了自我名利而为。“上仁”之人欲以仁恩天下,但不会达到预期的目的。“上义”之人欲以义感天下,是为了不可告人的目的而为。“上礼”之人欲以礼安天下,结果得不到天下人的响应,反而被人们推翻其统治,抛弃其礼节。

统观“上德”、“下德”、“上仁”、“上义”、“上礼”,只有“上德”是客观行为,其它都是主观行为。下德包含仁、义、礼。一个不明道的统治者,总是以自我名利为中心,所以,他所推行的仁、义、礼,都是为了巩固他的统治地位的。

在道、德、仁、义、礼这一组概念中,它们的关系是包含关系,即道包含德,德包含仁,仁包含义,义包含礼。道作为世界的本质、规律,是客观存在的,是真理。人们失去道则德不正,在德不正的情况下强调仁、义、礼,仁、义、礼必然向其反面转化。失去了道,人们就会被事物的表面现象所迷惑,沦为以自我为中心的思想观念,外在的名利成为人生追求的目标。在名利的诱惑下,人的虚伪性、欺骗性、阴险性自然逐渐形成。仁、义、礼的本质是美好的,她是道德的行为体现,是有道之士的自然流露。但是,历代无道的统治者为了维护本阶级的利益,无不对其作出人为的规定性,使其成为麻醉人民的思想工具。尤其是礼,它是道的最末节,最注重表面现象,历代统治者尤其强调它的作用,结果使得人性中淳朴、诚信的美德日趋淡薄。纵观历史和当今世界,实在是有太多太多的人在披着礼的外衣去干不可告人的勾当。这正是因为礼最重外饰的原故。所以说,礼是忠信淡薄和社会混乱的罪魁祸首。

前识者:人的外官所能意识到的,指表面的仁、义、礼。

能够为人们的外观所意识到的,都是表面现象,具有虚伪性和欺骗性。舍本质而重现象,是人类走向愚昧的开始。具有天地之志的大丈夫,是不会执着于事物的表面现象的,因为,欲实现天地之志,就必须证悟大道,配天地之德。因此,大丈夫抛开虚华的表面现象,修德悟道,去探求世界的内在本质。

本章是《德经》的首章。辩证地分析了道与德、仁、义、礼的关系。这里,老子没有否定德、仁、义、礼,相反,而是追求最纯真,最完美的德、仁、义、礼。德即自我意识是对客观事物的反映。人类的正确意识(上德)只能靠识道来获得,来源于表面现象的意识(下德)是主观的、片面的。执着于认识事物的表面现象,真理永远无法获得。用德、仁、义、礼治国,就是崇尚人治,愚化人民,人类永无自由。

可以断言,世界文化的中心必将转移到中国的道家文化上来,而老子的道德思想必将成为整个人类的指导思想。



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