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《道德经》(39)

2014-04-15    来源:网络    【      美国外教 在线口语培训

昔之得一者:
天得一以清,
地得一以宁,
神得一以灵,
谷得一以盈,
万物得一以生,
侯王得一以为天下贞。
其致之也。
天无以清,将恐裂;
地无以宁,将恐发;
神无以灵,将恐歇;
谷无以盈,将恐竭。
万物无以生;将恐灭。
侯王无以贞将恐蹶。
故贵以贱为本,
高以下为基。
是以侯王自称孤、寡、不谷。
此非以贱为本耶?
非乎?
至誉无誉。
不欲璐璐如玉,
珞珞如石。

【现代汉语】

古来凡是得到道这个“一”的一天得到“一”而清明;地得到“一”而宁静;神得到“一”而灵妙;河谷得到“一”而充盈;万物得到“一”而生长;侯王得到“一”而做了天下的首领。

推而言之,也就是说,天如果不能保持清明,恐怕就要崩裂;地如果不能保持宁静,恐怕就要陷塌;神如果不能保持灵妙,恐怕就要消失:河谷如果不能保持盈满,恐怕就要涸竭;万物如果不能保持生长,恐怕就要灭绝;侯王如果不能保持首领的地位,恐怕就会亡国。

所以贵是以贱为根本的,高是以低下为基础的,因为这个道理,侯王才自己谦称为“孤”,“寡”,“不谷”。这难道不是把低贱当作根本吗难道不是吗所以最高的赞誉是无须夸誉的。因此(人君应当)不愿意如玉一般华美,而宁可象石块一样坚实朴质。

Chapter 39

Of those in the past that obtained the One:
Heaven obtained the One and became clear;
The earth obtained the One and became tranquil;
The Gods obtained the One and became divine;
The valleys obtained the One and became full;
All things obtained the One and became alive and kept growing;
Kings and lords obtained the One and the world became peaceful.
Taking this to its logical conclusion we may say:
If Heaven had not thus become clear,
It would soon have cracked;
If the earth had not thus become tranquil,
It would soon have broken apart;
If the Gods had not thus become divine,
They would soon have perished;
If the valleys had not thus become full,
They would soon have dried up;
If all things had not thus become alive and kept growing,
They would soon have become extinct;
If kings and lords had not thus become honorable and noble,
They would soon have toppled and fallen.
It is always the case
That the noble takes the humble as its root.
And the high takes the low as its base.
Hence kings and lords call themselves
The orphaned, the solitary or the unworthy.
This is regarding the humble as the root of the noble, is it not?
People disdain the “orphaned,” “solitary” or “unworthy.”
And yet kings and lords call themselves by these terms.
Therefore the highest honor needs no flattering.
Thus with everything—
Sometimes it may increase when decreased,
And sometimes it may decrease when increased.
For this reason—
They desire not to dazzle and glitter like jade,
But to remain firm and plain like stone.

(王柯平 译)

其他版本:

【英译】

The things which from of old have got the One (the Tao) are heaven which by it is bright and pure; Earth rendered thereby firm and sure; Spirits with powers by it supplied; Valleys kept full throughout their void all creatures which through it do live princes and kings who from it get the model which to all they give.

All these are the results of the One (Tao).

If heaven were not thus pure, it soon would rend; If earth were not thus sure, It would break and bend; Without these powers, the spirits soon would fail;

If not so filled, the drought would parch each vale; Without that life, creatures would pass away; Princes and kings, without that moral sway, however grand and high, would all decay.

Thus it is that dignity finds its (firm) root in its (previous) meanness, and what is lofty finds its stability in the lowness (from which it rises). Hence princes and kings call themselves 'Orphans, 'Men of small virtue,' and as 'Carriages without a nave.' Is not this an acknowledgment that in their considering themselves mean they see the foundation of their dignity? So it is that in the enumeration of

the different parts of a carriage we do not come on what makes it answer the ends of a carriage. They do not wish to show themselves elegant-looking as jade, but (prefer) to be coarse-looking as an (ordinary) stone.

【备注】

“道生一”,一是道的载体,而朴是道德的体现。得道以德,德的最高标志就是返朴归真,所以,“得一”也就是得朴。

天得一以清:天,在上,比喻大脑。大脑得朴则断事清明。

地得一以宁:地,处下,比喻身体。身体得朴则健康安宁。

神得一以灵:神,人的精神。人的精神得朴则断事灵验。

谷得一以盈:谷,人体的气血脉络。血脉得朴则精气充盈。精气是朴的物质基础。

万物得一以生:万物,比喻人体所有的细胞。人体细胞得朴则自然健康繁殖。

侯王得一以为天下贞:侯王,比喻自我。贞,忠于自己所遵守的行为准则。自我得朴则可以确立合乎道的处世法则。

致之:推而言之,即由治身之道推广到治国之道。

推而言之:统治阶级(天)不凭借朴治,使政治清明,国家将恐分裂;百姓(地)不凭借朴治使社会安宁,国家将恐引发动荡;人们的精神不凭借朴治得以慰藉,恐将产生信仰危机;山川河流不凭借朴治获得充盈,水利资源恐将枯竭;万物不凭借朴治来保护,恐将毁灭;侯王不以朴治国,反而自视高贵,其统治地位恐将被推翻。

故贵以贱为本,高以下为基。是以侯王自谓孤、寡、不穀,此非以贱为本邪,非乎?故致数车无车。

孤:孤儿。寡:寡妇。穀:粮食作物。不穀,是指百姓没有粮食、遭受饥荒,多因统治者不道造成。统治者以此作为自称,以表明自己时时刻刻在体恤弱者,为民着想,以示有德。车:河车,古代用来汲水的工具。河车旋转一圈为一车,比喻一辈、一代。另,真气顺着小周天循环运转称为河车转动。

任何事情都是相反相成、互相转化的。守贱则贵,筑基则高,世间之所以有贵,是因为有贱为之衬托;之所以有高,是因为有下与之对应。正如那些显赫的统治者们,他们的高是骑在劳动人民头上的;他们的贵,是用劳动人民的血汗铸就的。其实,不道的帝王们也非常明白这些道理,所谓“水能载舟,亦能覆舟”,正是对历史经验的深刻总结。所以,他们用孤、寡、不穀来称呼自己,表明自己是以民为本,以民为基的。对此,老子给予彻底否定:“这不是以贱(民)为本呀!难道不是吗?”以民为本的统治者施行的是“无为之治”和“不言之教”,而不是在自己的称谓上作文章。他们称孤道寡,只是欺世盗名的手段而已,真正目的不过是为了维护其高贵的统治地位罢了。因此,他们的统治地位也只能有数辈而已。

就治身而言,只有炼己筑基,使河车转动,身体才能健康长寿。常人不懂得练功,任精气遗失,河车也就不转动了。河车不转动,大脑就得不到精气的滋补,逐渐形成脑萎缩,各种疾病亦相伴而生。

这是以道德功的周天原理来阐明“贵以贱为本,高以下为基”的论点。

不欲:练功时彻底消除自我欲望,排除一切外在、内在干扰,这是进入功态的前提条件。当河车发动,真气逆督脉而上,过百会、下印堂、透过眼帘时,气流象玉珠一样碌碌而下,出现在眼前的是金玉之光,这即是“碌碌如玉。”气流下行,过中丹田入下丹田,腹内会发出咕咕噜噜的响声,如同石头的撞击声,这即是“落落如石”。

这里,老子所要阐明的道理是:一,同为一气,在上如玉,在下如石;可见如玉,不可见如石。只因其所处的位置不同,本没有贵贱之分。二,真气之所以能够上行,形成眼前之“玉”,这是通过修练筑基功,下丹田真气充盈的结果,从而阐明“贵以贱为本,高以下为基”的论点。



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