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《道德经》(61)

2014-05-16    来源:网络    【      美国外教 在线口语培训

第六十一章 外交

大国者下流,
天下之交,
天下之牝。
牝常以静胜牡,
以静为下。
故大国以下小国,
则取小国;
小国以下大国,
则取大国。
故或下以取,
或下而取。
大国不过欲兼畜人,
小国不过欲入事人。
夫两者各得其所欲,
大者宜为下。

【现代汉语】

大国要象居于江河的下流一样,处于雌柔的位置,这是天下交汇的地方。雌柔常常以虚静战胜雄强,就是因为它安静而处于下面的缘故。

所以大国用谦下的态度对待小国,就可以取得小国的信任;小国用谦下的态度对待大国,也才能取得大国的信任。所以,有时大国以谦下的态度取得小国的信任,有时小国以谦下的态度取得大国的信任。大国不过是要聚养小国,小国不过是要待奉大国,这样大国小国都各自满足了愿望,大国还是应当以谦下为宜。

Chapter 61

A large state is like a low-lying estuary,
the female of all under heaven.
In the congress of all under heaven,
the female always conquers the male through her stillness.
Because she is still, it is fitting for her to lie low.
By lying beneath a small state,
a large state can take over a small state.
By lying beneath a large state,
a small state can be taken over by a large state.
Therefore,
One may either take over or be taken over by lying low.
Therefore,
The large state wishes only to annex and nurture others;
The small state wants only to join with and serve others.
Now,
Since both get what they want,
It is fitting for the large state to lie low.

(Victor H. Mair 译)

Chapter 61

The great land is a place
To which the streams descend;
It is the concourse and..
The female of the world:
Quiescent, underneath,
It overcomes the male.

By quietness and by humility
The great land then puts down the small
And gets it for its own;
But small lands too absorb the great
By their subservience.
Thus some lie low, designing conquest’s ends;
While others lowly are, by nature bent
To conquer all the rest.

The great land’s foremost need is to increase
The number of its folk;
The small land needs above all else to find
Its folk more room to work.
That both be served and each attain its goal
The great land should attempt humility.

(R. B. Blakney 译)

Chapter 61

A large state should play the role of female,
Just like the lowest reaches of a river
Where all the other streams meet.
The female always conquers the male
by motionlessness,
Because the motionless female
always takes the lower position.
hence the large state can annex the small one;
by taking the lower position (being modest);
The small state can gain the trust of the large one
by taking the lower position,
The case being either the former
or vice versa.

(辜正坤 译)

其他版本:

【英译】

What makes a great state is its being (like) a low-lying, down-flowing (stream);--it becomes the centre to which tend (all the small states) under heaven.

(To illustrate from) the case of all females:--the female always overcomes the male by her stillness. Stillness may be considered (a sort of) abasement.

Thus it is that a great state, by condescending to small states, gains them for itself; and that small states, by abasing themselves to a great state, win it over to them. In the one case the abasement leads to gaining adherents, in the other case to procuring favour.

The great state only wishes to unite men together and nourish them; a small state only wishes to be received by, and to serve, the other. Each gets what it desires, but the great state must learn to abase itself.

【备注】

大国者下流,天下之交。

下流:谦下守静,以静和动。用“下流”二字,让人立即明白,大国是以大海作比。大海之所以为大,是因为处下,天下所有河流在那里交汇的缘故。

这一句用海洋和河流作比大国和小国,说明大国和海洋一样,是兼容小国的缘故。

天下之牝,常以静胜牡,牝以静为下。故大国以下小国,则取小国;小国以下大国,则取大国。

牝:雌性动物,属阴,具有温柔、谦下、守静的特性。牡:雄性动物,属阳,具有刚强、傲慢、躁动的特性。

天下的雌性动物,常常以温柔征服天下的雄性动物。阴之所以胜阳是因其本性符合大道之性。牝胜牡,就是阴胜阳,静胜动。同样道理,如果大国能够以谦下守静之德对待小国,就可以取得小国的拥护和归顺;如果小国以柔和守静之德对待大国,则可以取得大国的尊重和保护。

故或下以取,或下而取。大国不过欲兼畜人,小国不过欲入事人。夫两者各得其所欲,大者宜为下。

“或下以取,或下而取”,说明不管是大国征服小国,还是小国征服大国,其前提条件都是守静谦下,即大国和小国的和平共处是建立在相互信任、相互尊重基础上的。大国取得小国的归顺,目的不过是为了让更多的人加入道德事业的行列,使道德之树不断成长和壮大。小国加入大国的行列,目的不过是同大国一道,共同维护道德事业的发展,让道德普及天下。大国与小国的建交,既体现了共同的目标,又满足了各自的愿望。但是,在建交之初,大国更应该有大国的风度,以主动谦下之德去接纳小国。

本章论述的是国际外交政策。以天地阴阳之妙用,推论大国和小国的和平共处原则。大国守静处下,是符合客观规律的。倘若以强凌弱,以大欺小,就违背了自然法则,必被小国战胜。小国若不能尊守自然法则,躁动妄为,以小犯大,必国破人亡。所以,不论大国小国都必须建立在相互尊重的基础上,和平共处,共同造就人类社会的繁荣和稳定。



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