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《道德经》(62)

2014-05-19    来源:网络    【      美国外教 在线口语培训

第六十二章 幸福观

道者万物之奥,
善人之宝,
不善人之所保。
美言可以市,
尊行可以加人。
人之不善,
何弃之有?
故立天子,
置三公,
虽有拱璧以先驷马,
不如坐进此道。
古之所以贵此道者何?
不曰:
以求得,
有罪以免耶?
故为天下贵。

【现代汉语】

“道”是万物深藏的地方。(它是)善人的法宝,不善的人也要保持的东西。 (得“道”的人)美好的言词可以取得人们的尊敬,美好的行为可以使人器重。不善的人,怎么能把“道”舍弃呢所以,天子即位,设置三公,即使有拱璧在先,驷马随后(这样隆重的)礼仪,倒不如用“道”来作为献礼。

古时候重视“道”的原因是什么呢岂不是说,有求就可以得到,有罪就可以免除吗所以被天下人所重视。

Chapter 62

The Way is the cistern of the myriad creatures;
It is the treasure of the good man,
And that which is treasured by the bad man.
Beautiful words can be traded,
Noble deeds can be used as gifts for others.
Why should we reject even what is bad about men?
Therefore,
When the son of heaven is enthroned or the three ministers are installed,
Although they may have large jade disks
And be preceded by teams of four horses,
It would be better for them to sit down and make progress in this.
What was the reason for the ancients to value this so highly?
Did they not say:
“Seek and thou shalt receive;
Sin and thou shalt be forgiven”?
Therefore,
It is valued by all under heaven.

(Victor H. Mair 译)

Chapter 62

The Way is the pivot of all things: the treasure of good people, the safeguard of those who are not good.

Fine words can be sold, honored acts can oppress people; why should people who are not good abandon them.

Therefore to establish an emperor and set up high officials, one may have a great jewel and drive a team of horses, but that is not as good as advancing calmly on this Way.

Why did the ancients value this Way? By it one can attain without long seeking and escape from the faults one has; therefore it is valued by the world.

(Thomas Cleary 译)

Chapter 62

The Way is the shelter of all things in the world. The kind people treasure it, but the unkind people tend to protect it.

Beautiful words are popular in social activities, find deeds are influential to other people. How can it be that the unkind people abandon the Way? Therefore, the system of establishing the Son of Heaven and the three titles of dukes, in spite of such ceremonies with the tributes in the front followed by the four-horse chariot, is not as good as to dedicating the Way as a present.

Why the Way was treasured in the olden times? Does it mean that you can get what you covet, and that you can be remitted for what you have done? Therefore, the Way is treasured by all the people in the world.

(顾丹柯 译)

其他版本:

【英译】

Tao has of all things the most honoured place. No treasures give good men so rich a grace; Bad men it guards, and doth their ill efface.

(Its) admirable words can purchase honour; (its) admirable deeds can raise their performer above others. Even men who are not good are not abandoned by it.

Therefore when the sovereign occupies his place as the Son of heaven, and he has appointed his three ducal ministers, though (a prince) were to send in a round symbol-of-rank large enough to fill both the hands, and that as the precursor of the team of horses (in the court-yard), such an offering would not be equal to (a lesson of) this Tao, which one might present on his knees.

Why was it that the ancients prized this Tao so much? Was it not because it could be got by seeking for it, and the guilty could escape (from the stain of their guilt) by it? This is the reason why all under heaven consider it the most valuable thing.

【备注】

道者,万物之奥。善人之宝,不善人之所保。

道,蕴藏着宇宙万物之所以存在和发展变化的奥妙,蕴涵着获得人生幸福的大智大慧。善人得道,成为人生之至宝,终生受用不穷。那些贪求外在功利的不善之人不可能得道,但是,为了获得极端个人利益,满足他们人生欲望,又不得不借助于道来掩饰、保护自己。

美言可以市尊,美行可以加人。人之不善,何弃之有?故立天子,置三公。虽有拱、璧、以先四马,不如坐进此道。

美丽动听的语言可以换回别人的尊敬,美好的行为可以获得别人的拥戴——刘备摔子,曹操割发,即属于“美言”、“美行”。也正因为懂得“美言”、“美行”,才成就了他们的帝王之尊.,猎取了他们所追求的外在名利。既然“美言可以市尊,美行可以加人”,不善之人又怎么能够弃绝呢?因此,世间才确立了“天子”,配置了“三公”。言下之意,天子、三公都是披着道的外衣,善于说漂亮话,做漂亮事的不善之人。

天子:上天的儿子。奴隶社会、封建社会的统治者,称自己为上天的儿子,那么由他们建立、执掌的帝王政权就是天命所授,自己的一切行为都是上天的旨意,因而是合理的。公:公平、公正的意思,这里指称诸侯国的国王。周朝的最高统治者称“天子”,各诸侯国的国王称“公”。王公的任务是奉天子之命,公平、公正地为民办事。三,并非确数,是“多”的意思。天子、王公本来是剥削阶级的代表人物,却被美化成上天的儿子,人民的公仆,这才是天下最大的谎言。“自古权与贵,不系才与贤”,是对天子之尊,三公之贵的最确切的注解。天子、三公不绝,世间不善之人不灭!

尽管天子、王公享受着文武百官的朝拜以及三宫六院之美,出行时乘坐着由四匹马拉着的大车,但还是不如坐入道境。

拱:双手相合高举,躯体弯成弧形,这是文武百官对天子、王公的奴才之礼。璧:碧玉,喻妃嫔。以先四马:四匹马拉着的大车。坐进此道:以静坐的方式进入道境。这一天人合一的境界才是物我两忘,绝对逍遥自由的。

古之所以贵此道者何?不曰求以得,有罪以免邪!故为天下贵。

古人所以尊崇大道,是什么原因呢?这是因为,修道之人,不说是为了达到最高境界,求得神通,只说为了使自我免遭疾患之罪。所以,大道才为天下人视为宝贵。

健康长寿,无病无灾,这是人生幸福的一个主要方面。修炼道德功,不但可以积蓄真气以抵御外来邪气的侵袭,而且还可以消除遗传基因中携带的病毒,还我一个健康的体魄,这是道德功最基本的功能。我们知道,返朴归真、创造自己的精神天国、预知过去未来是修炼道德功所追求的最高境界。当然,这一境界不可能人人达到,但是,只要潜心修炼,“有罪以免”是人人可以实现的。所以天下人无不以此道为贵。

修炼道德功不仅可以造福于自我,更重要的是还可以造福于后代。基因病毒可以遗传,自我个性亦可以遗传。修炼道德功所培育的健康的基因、良好的个性,自然可以给子孙后代带来好命运。“积善之家,必有余庆;积不善之家,必有余殃。”古人是不会欺骗我们的。

本章是修道者的幸福观。至善之人潜心求道,彻悟人生真谛,拔除了产生人生种种痛苦的根源,享受着精神天国的无限美妙,这才是人生的最大幸福。不善之人汲汲于外在的名利,以致用尽心计,不择手段,来满足自我永无止境的贪欲之心。即使他们猎取了天子之尊,三公之贵,其精神境界还是无法和得道之人的精神天国相比。

身体的健康虽说是道德功的副产品,然而,从“有罪以免”的角度来说,无病无灾就是福,这也是人们所普遍向往的,所以,强身之道历来为人们所重视。



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