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《道德经》(63)

2014-05-20    来源:网络    【      美国外教 在线口语培训

第六十三章 举轻若重

为无为,
事无事,
味无味。
大小多少,
报怨以德。
图难于其易,
为大于其细;
天下难事,
必作于易,
天下大事,
必作于细。
是以圣人终不为大,
故能成其大。
夫轻诺必寡信,
多易必多难。
是以圣人犹难之,
故终无难矣。

【现代汉语】

以“无为”的态度去作为,以“无事”的方式去做事,以无味作为味。大生于小,多起于少,用恩德去报答怨恨。解决困难的事要从容易的地方着手,做大事情要从细小的地方入手。天下的难事,一定从简易开始;天下的大事,必定由细小开始。所以有“道”的圣人永远不认为自己在做大事情,才能成就大事。轻易应诺别人的要求,一定很少遵守信约;把事情看得太容易,遇到的困难就一定多。因此有“道”的圣人(遇到事情)都把它看得艰难,所以才永远没有困难。

Chapter 63

Act through non-action,
Handle affairs through noninterference,
Taste what has no taste,
Regard the small as great, the few as many,
Repay resentment with integrity.
Undertake difficult tasks by approaching what is easy in them;
Do great deeds by focusing on their minute aspects.
All difficulties under heaven arise from what is easy,
All great things under heaven arise from what is minute.
For this reason,
The sage never strives to do what is great.
Therefore,
He can achieve greatness.
One who lightly assents will seldom be believed;
One who thinks everything is easy will encounter much difficulty.
For this reason,
Even the sage considers things difficult.
Therefore,
In the end he is without difficulty.

(Victor H. Mair 译)

Chapter 63

Do without doing,
Act without action.
Savor the flavorless.
Treat the small as large,
the few as many.
Meet injury
with the power of goodness.

Study the hard while it is still easy.
Do big things while they are small.
The hardest jobs in the world start out easy,
the great affairs of the world start small.

So the wise soul,
by never dealing with great things,
gets great things done.

Now, since taking things too lightly
makes them worthless,
and taking things too easy makes them hard,
the wise soul
by treating the easy as hard,
doesn’t find anything hard.

(Ursula K. Le Guin 译)

Chapter 63

Consider take-no-action as a code of conduct.
Consider make-no-trouble as a way of deed.
Consider have-no-flavor as a method of taste.
It is a rule in the world that
The most difficult things begin with the easy,
And the largest things arise from the minute.
Hence, tackle the difficulty while it is still easy;
Achieve the large while it is still minute.
For this reason, the sage never strives for the great,
And thereby he can accomplish it.
He who makes promises too readily will surely lack credibility.
He who takes things too easily will surely encounter difficulty.
Therefore, even the sage regards things as difficult,
And he is free from any difficulty as a result.

(王柯平 译)

其他版本:

【英译】

(It is the way of the Tao) to act without (thinking of) acting; to conduct affairs without (feeling the) trouble of them; to taste without discerning any flavour; to consider what is small as great, and a few as many; and to recompense injury with kindness.

(The master of it) anticipates things that are difficult while they are easy, and does things that would become great while they are small. All difficult things in the world are sure to arise from a previous state in which they were easy, and all great things from one in which they were small. Therefore the sage, while he never does what is great, is able on that account to accomplish the greatest things.

He who lightly promises is sure to keep but little faith; he who is continually thinking things easy is sure to find them difficult. Therefore the sage sees difficulty even in what seems easy, and so never has any difficulties.

【备注】

为无为,事无事,味无味。大小多少,抱怨以德。

味:品味的意思,引申为体会、思考。

治理国家要实行无为之治。处理国家事务,不能怀有个人私心。思考问题要思考那些没有发生而可能发生的问题。要用辩证的观点看待大、小、多、少的关系,要以正确的思想观念对待群众的怨言。——群众的怨言并不是无缘无故的,它是社会体制不健全的具体体现。

图难于其易,为大于其细。天下难事,必作于易;天下大事,必作于细。是以圣人终不为大,故能成其大。

解决难题,要从最容易的开始,规划宏伟蓝图要从最小处着眼。国家那些很难解决的问题,必定都是从看似简单的事情引起的;国家所取得的巨大成就,必定都是从小事开始,一步一步实现的。所以,圣人治理国家自始至终所从事的看起来似乎都是一些小事,但也正是这些小事才化解了国家的困难,造就了国家的繁荣富强,同时也铸就了圣人的伟大形象。

夫轻诺必寡信,多易必多难。是以圣人犹难之,故终无难。

一个轻易许诺的人,必定是很少坚守信用的人。把所有问题都看得很容易,必定会遇到许多困难。

轻易许诺的人不慎重考虑问题,把问题看简单了,待到实际去做的时候,却发现不是他当初想象的那么容易,这是造成“寡信”的原因。一旦失信于人,就很难再得到众人的帮助,得不到众人的帮助,困难就越多。所以,“多难”必是“寡信”的结果。

因此,圣人做事与轻诺的人不同,他总是举轻若重,慎终如始,这样一来,他就自始至终都不会有困难了。

本章以辩证法的观点,论述了大小、多少、轻重、难易的辩证关系,并指明了解决这些矛盾的具体措施,即遵循事物发展的量变质变规律。



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