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《道德经》(64)

2014-05-21    来源:网络    【      美国外教 在线口语培训

第六十四章 防患于未然

其安易持,
其未兆易谋。
其脆易泮,
其微易散。
为之于未有,
治之于未乱。
合抱之木,
生于毫末;
九层之台,
起于累土;
千里之行,
始于足下。
为者败之,
执者失之。
是以圣人无为故无败;
无执故无失。
民之从事,
常于几成而败之。
慎终如始,
则无败事,
是以圣人欲不欲,
不贵难得之货;
学不学,
复众人之所过,
以辅万物之自然,
而不敢为。

【现代汉语】

事物稳定时就容易掌握,事物还没有出现变化的迹象时,容易打主意。事物脆弱时容易分解,事物还微小时,容易打散。要在事情还没有发生变化时就把它做好,要在混乱还没有产生时就把它治理好,合抱的大树,是从细小的萌芽生长起来的;九层的高台,是从一筐筐土开始堆积而成的;千里的远行,是从脚下第一步开始的。(硬要去)做,就必然会遭到失败;(紧紧)抓住不放,就必将会遭受损失。因此有“道”的圣人不(轻易)做,所以就没有失败;不抓着不放,听以没有损失。

人们做事情,总是在快要成功的时候就失败。(如果)在事情要完成的时候也能象事情开始时那样谨慎,就不会有失败的事情了。因此有“道”的圣人所向往的事,是别人所不向往的。(他)不看重那些稀罕的财物;他的学习就是不学什么;改正众人的错误,用(上述原则)辅助万物自然发展,不敢轻率去做。

Chapter 64

What is secure is easily grasped,
What has no omens is easily forestalled,
What is brittle is easily split,
What is minuscule is easily dispersed.
Act before there is a problem;
Bring order before there is disorder.
A tree that fills the arms’ embrace is born from a downy shoot;
A terrace nine layers high starts from a basketful of earth;
An ascent of a hundred strides begins beneath one’s foot.
Who acts fails;
Who grasps loses.
For this reason,
The sage does not act.
Therefore,
He does not fail.
He does not grasp.
Therefore,
He does not lose.
In pursuing their affairs, people often fail when they are close to success.
Therefore,
If one is as cautious at the end as at the beginning, there will be no failures.
For this reason,
The sage desires to be without desire and does not prize goods that are hard to obtain;
He learns not to learn and reverts to what the masses pass by.
Thus,
he can help the myriad creatures be natural, but dares not act.

(Victor H. Mair 译)

Chapter 64

At rest is easy to hold.
Not yet impossible is easy to plan.
Brittle is easy to break.
Fine is easy to scatter.
Create before it exists.
Lead before it goes astray.

A tree too big to embrace
Is born from a slender shoot.
A nine-story rises from a pile of earth.
A thousand-mile journey
Begins with a single step.

Act and you ruin it.
Grasp and you lose it.
Therefore the Sage
Does not act
And so does not ruin
Does not grasp
And so does not lose.

People commonly ruin their work
When they are near success.
Proceed at the end as at the beginning
And your work won’t be ruined.

Therefore the Sage
Desires no desires,
Prizes no prizes,
Studies no studies,
And returns
To what others pass by.
The Sage
Helps all beings find their nature,
But does not presume to act.

(Stephen Addiss, Stanley Lombardo and Burton Watson 译)

Chapter 64

When things are in good order, it is easy to keep them under control.
Once things are in disorder, it is difficult to get them under control.
It is just like that when a thing is brittle, it is easy to break; or when a thing is weak, it is easily broken into bits.
Therefore, action should be taken before it appears, order should be secured before disorder has begun.
A large tree grew from a tiniest sprout;
A tower of nine stories rose from heaps of earth;
The journey of a thousand miles was begun one single step at a time.
A person who does things that do not proceed in good order will not fail; he never insists on his own ideas, so he will not fail for this reason either.
Some people fail just when things are about to be finished. If these people would proceed to the very end as carefully as they had in the beginning, they would not fail.
The sage advised people to give up their desires, not to treasure greatly the hard-to-get precious goods, and to learn the wise things which ordinary people neglect. In doing so, they will escape mistakes.
Support the natural development of all things, and do not do things recklessly.

(马德五 译)

其他版本:

【英译】

That which is at rest is easily kept hold of; before a thing has given indications of its presence, it is easy to take measures against it; that which is brittle is easily broken; that which is very small is easily dispersed. Action should be taken before a thing has made its appearance; order should be secured before disorder has begun.

The tree which fills the arms grew from the tiniest sprout; the tower of nine storeys rose from a (small) heap of earth; the journey of a thousand li commenced with a single step.

He who acts (with an ulterior purpose) does harm; he who takes hold of a thing (in the same way) loses his hold. The sage does not act (so), and therefore does no harm; he does not lay hold (so), and therefore does not lose his bold. (But) people in their conduct of affairs are constantly ruining them when they are on the eve of success. If they were careful at the end, as (they should be) at the beginning, they would not so ruin them.

Therefore the sage desires what (other men) do not desire, and does not prize things difficult to get; he learns what (other men) do not learn, and turns back to what the multitude of men have passed by.

Thus he helps the natural development of all things, and does not dare to act (with an ulterior purpose of his own).

【备注】

其安易持,其未兆易谋。其脆易泮,其微易散。为之于未有,治之于未乱。

泮:通“判”,分解、分裂的意思。

国家安定的时候,社会秩序易于维持,社会未出现混乱征兆的时候,易于谋求预防措施。脆弱的东西容易破碎,细微的东西容易失散。社会弊端尚未形成的时候要有防范意识,一旦发现征兆就应及时地把它们消灭在萌芽状态。

《黄帝内经》上说:“圣人不治已病治未病,不治已乱治未乱”,“夫病以成而后药之,乱以成而后治之,譬犹渴而穿井,斗而铸锥,不亦晚乎?”这和老子所说的道理是完全一致的。

这一节,强调圣人之治的重点在于认识并遵循自然规律,防患于未然。

合抱之木,生于毫末;九层之台,起于累土;千里之行,始于足下。

合抱粗的大树,生长于细小的嫩芽;九层的高台,是由一筐土一筐土堆筑起来的;千里远的行程,是一步一步走过来的。

这里列举三个具体事例,说明一切事物的发展变化都有量变到质变的过程,只求质变而不注重量的积累是不切实际的。

为者败之,执者失之。是以圣人无为故无败,无执故无失。

为者,主观妄为而不顾客观规律的人;执者,执着于自我使自我居于支配地位的人。 主观妄为而不顾客观规律的必然失败,执着于自我使自我居于支配地位的必然失去支配地位。因此,圣人始终遵循客观规律而为,所以没有失败;始终不使自我居于支配地位,所以没有丧失。

这一节,从正反两方面说明了顺其自然的重要性。人是大自然的产物,应当接受自然规律的主宰。如果不能自觉遵循客观规律,却执着于自我而妄作妄为,必然要遭到惩罚。

民之从事,常以几成而败之。慎终如始,则无败事。

人们从事于某一项事业,常常在接近成功的时候遭受失败,其根本原因在于他们不能遵循自然规律,而是心存自我,心存名利,心存狂妄。如果在其接近成功的时候仍能保持举事之初的谨慎,就不会有失败了。如中国历史上的农民起义,往往在接近成功的时候遭到失败,病根就在于那些领袖人物当革命临近成功的时候思想发生了根本性的转化。举事之初,他们怀着对统治阶级的无比仇恨和对劳苦大众的无比同情而高举义旗,旨在为穷人打天下。革命既将成功的时候,他们却迫不及待地享受胜利果实,以至内部之间争权夺利,导致革命失败。如李自成、洪秀全之流,倘若他们能够慎终如始并摆正自己与人民、与国家的利害关系,就不会出现失败的命运了。

这一节说明慎终如始的重要性,强调任何时候都不能偏离大道。

是以圣人欲不欲,不贵难得之货;学不学,复众人之所过。以辅万物之自然而不敢为。

圣人所欲,为真朴之欲,常人所欲为自我名利之欲。圣人之欲在内,常人之欲在外。欲望在内的不贵身外之物却能保全自我,欲望在外的求名求利却祸患不离自我。圣人所学为大道之学,目的在于返朴归真;众人所学为名利之学,目的在于升官、发财。圣人不学众人所学,是因为大道之学利人利己,扭转、避免了众人所学中的过失。众人所学损人利己,最终人己倶损。大道之学在于掌握世界的本质规律,用以辅助万物因循自然规律,而决不敢违背自然规律去妄作妄为。辅:辅助。一个“辅”字表明人是具有能动性的。人与自然是对立统一的,承受着自然界作用的人,并非单纯消极地适应自然,完全有能力去把握和利用自然规律,从而能动地辅助万物,利用万物,充分享用大自然馈赠给人和人类社会生存和发展所需要的一切财富。但是,人的能动作用决不能脱离自然规律的轨道去任意发挥,否则,势必遭到大自然的报复和惩罚。

这一节说明圣人所欲、所学都是合乎大道的,常人所学则是偏离大道的。

本章论述了人与自然、社会的关系。人是属于大自然的,大自然的发展是有规律的,规律是不以人的主观意志为转移的。人具有能动性,可以认识和利用自然规律。人的自身实践活动及社会实践活动只有尊重自然规律,才能获得与大自然的和谐统一。



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