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《道德经》(65)

2014-05-22    来源:网络    【      美国外教 在线口语培训

第六十五章 大顺

古之善为道者,
非以明民,
将以愚之。
民之难治,
以其智多。
故以智治国,
国之贼;
不以智治国,
国之福。
如此两者亦稽式。
常知稽式,
是谓玄德。
玄德深矣,
远矣,
与物反矣,
然后乃至大顺。

【现代汉语】

古来善于以“道”执政的人,不是用(知识)使人民狡猾明智,而是使人民真朴自然。人民之所以难统治,就是因为他们有太多的智巧心机。所以用智巧去治理国家,是国家的祸害;不用巧智去治理国家,是国家的幸福。

了解这两种方式也就是一个法则。永远了解这个法则,就是深远的“德”,这深远的“德”是那样的深,那样的远,与万物复归到真朴,然后归于自然。

Chapter 65

The ancients who practiced the Way did not enlighten the people with it;
They used it, rather, to stupefy them.
The people are hard to rule because they have too much knowledge.
Therefore,
Ruling a state through knowledge is to rob the state;
Ruling a state through ignorance brings integrity to the state.
One who is always mindful of these two types grasps a paradigm;
Mindfulness of this paradigm is called “mysterious integrity.”
Deep and distant is this mysterious integrity!
It runs counter to things until it reaches the great confluence.

(Victor H. Mair 译)

Chapter 65

In the olden days those who obeyed the spirit of Tao did not enlighten the people,
but kept them simple hearted.

Clever people are difficult to govern.
And so, governing people with cleverness is a mistake;
while governing them with simplicity is a blessing.
The ruler who remembers this becomes a good model.
This is governing in the spirit of the Tao.

The effects of simplicity are profound indeed,
deep and far reaching.
It is the very opposite of common practice,
but it is the most effective way to rule.

(Sam Torode and Dwight Goddard 译)

Chapter 65

The person with “Dao” in ancient times
did not make the people smart with “Dao”,
but taught them to be ignorant by “Dao” instead.
The reason the people are difficult to control
is that they have too much knowledge.
So, to manage a country with knowledge
is always a disaster for the country;
to abandon knowledge in governing a country
is actually a blessing to it.
These who (with knowledge and without it) are known from one standard.
To carry out this standard always
is called “xuan de”1.
How profound that “xuan de” is, how far-reaching it is.
It is opposite from any conventional experience.
Finally, it reaches the greatest harmony.2

1. “Xuan de” means “deep”, “profound” and “far-reaching”; it cannot be perceived by any sense organs, so it is called “xuan de”.
2. The last term means “to completely go well with the principle of Dao”.

(任远 译)

【英译】

The ancients who showed their skill in practising the Tao did so, not to enlighten the people, but rather to make them simple and ignorant.

The difficulty in governing the people arises from their having much knowledge. He who (tries to) govern a state by his wisdom is a scourge to it; while he who does not (try to) do so is a blessing.

He who knows these two things finds in them also his model and rule. Ability to know this model and rule constitutes what we call the mysterious excellence (of a governor). Deep and far-reaching is such mysterious excellence, showing indeed its possessor as opposite to others, but leading them to a great conformity to him.

【备注】

古之善为道者,非以明民,将以愚之。

古代善于以大道来教化百姓的圣人,不是教育百姓怎样用“美言”、“美行”去获取个人名利,而是用大道来转化他们的思想观念,培养他们的“傻子”精神。这是建设文明社会的指导方针。

老子的“愚民”思想实为明民之举,绝不是“愚民政策”。愚,是扬弃自我之智而明真我,明真我才能明白世界,明白一切。常人明自我而昧真我,实为内外皆愚。守自我而不明真我,必然以自我为中心,以自我为中心,则行“人之道”,“损不足而奉有余”;明真我,自然形成以“他人”为中心的世界观,以他人为中心,则行“天之道”,“损有余而补不足”。“人之道”和“天之道”是对立的。“人之道”是个人主义、利己主义;“天之道”是集体主义、利他主义。如果用个人主义、利己主义去衡量“明”和“愚”,那么,具有个人主义、利己主义思想的人是“明人”,具有集体主义、利他主义思想的人是“愚人”。相反,如果用集体主义、利他主义去衡量“明”和“愚”,那么,具有个人主义、利己主义思想的人是愚人,具有集体主义、利他主义思想的人是明人。也就是说,观念一致的同为明人,观念不一致的对方是愚人。“非以明民,将以愚之”,是说要消除人们的个人主义、利己主义思想,培养人们的利他主义、集体主义思想,走共同富裕的道路。因为,个人主义、利己主义是人心浮躁、社会纷乱的根源,而集体主义、利他主义是人心思定、天下大顺的根本。

民之难治,以其智多。以智治国,国之贼;不以智治国,国之福。

国家之所以混乱,人民之所以难以管理,就是因为自我之智太多的缘故。用自我之智去观察世界,必然以自我为中心,个人主义、利己主义思想就会主宰自我。为了实现个人目的,满足自我欲望,自我之智就得以无限扩展,唯名利是图甚至不择手段,铤而走险,以致社会混乱不安。

“以智治国”,就是利用自我之智实行“人治”。所谓人治,就是由统治者垄断国家权力,搞专制统治,以一人之心或少数人之心奴役全国人民,最大限度地满足统治者的欲望,这难道不是国家的最大祸害吗?“不以智治国”,就是实行“无为之治”即民主法治。实行民主法治必然“以百姓之心为心”。人民当家作主,享有充分的人权和自由,这自然是国家和人民的福气。“国之贼”说明独裁统治对于国家的危害性,是对人治的否定;“国之福”则是对法治的肯定。

知此两者亦稽式。常知稽式,是谓玄德。玄德深矣、远矣,与物反矣。然后乃至大顺。

两者:“以智治国”和“不以智治国,”即人治和法治。稽:分析、辩证的意思。稽式,即辩证方式,用现在的说法,就是辩证法。“知此两者亦稽式”,是说认识到了人治之于社会的危害和法治之于社会的有益,也就懂得了辩证法。能够自始至终用科学的辩证思想来指导国家建设和人们的道德实践活动,就是具备了玄德。玄德:来源于道的正确意识,是合乎自然规律的普遍真理。玄德的指导作用是巨大的,影响是深远的。玄德与名利观念完全相反,只要用玄德取代了人们以自我为中心的名利观念,“人之道”就会转向“天之道”,天下大顺的局面也就形成了。大顺:社会规律完全符合自然规律的理想社会。

本章论述了道德教育之于社会进步的重要性,而完善的社会制度是进行全民道德教育的基础。老子否定人治,肯定法治,强调“愚民”,旨在建立以集体主义为核心的道德观,反对极端个人主义和利己主义。



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