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《道德经》(67)

2014-05-26    来源:网络    【      美国外教 在线口语培训

第六十七章 三宝

天下皆谓我道大,
似不肖。
夫唯大,
故似不肖。
若肖,
久矣其细也夫!
我有三宝,
持而保之:
一曰慈,
二曰俭,
三曰不敢为天下先。
慈故能勇,
俭故能广,
不敢为天下先,
故能成器长。
今舍慈且勇,
舍俭且广,
舍后且先,
死矣。
夫慈,
以战则胜,
以守则固。
天将救之,
以慈卫之。

【现代汉语】

天下的人都说我的“道”是很大的,好象它并不象(任何具体的事物)。正因为它的广大,所以不象任何具体的东西。如果它象什么具体东西的话,它早就渺小得很了!

我有三件宝贝,我掌握并保存着它们。第一件叫做慈爱,第二件叫做节俭,第三件叫做不敢处在天下人的前边。(因为)慈爱,所以能勇敢;(因为)节俭,所以能富裕;(因为)不敢处在天下人的前边,所以能做万物的首长。

现在,舍弃慈爱而求取勇敢,舍弃节俭而求取富裕,舍弃退让而求取争先,结果只是死亡!慈爱,用它去征战就能获胜,用它去守卫就能巩固。上天要救助谁,就用慈爱去卫护谁。

Chapter 67

All under heaven say that I am great, great but unconventional.
Now,
Precisely because I am unconventional,
I can be great;
If I were conventional,
I would long since have become a trifle.
I have always possessed three treasures that I guard and cherish.
The first is compassion,
The second is frugality,
The third is not daring to be ahead of all under heaven.
Now,
Because I am compassionate, I can be brave;
Because I am frugal, I can be magnanimous;
Because I dare not be ahead of all under heaven, I can be a leader in the completion of affairs.
If, today, I were to
Be courageous while forsaking compassion,
Be magnanimous while forsaking frugality,
Get ahead while forsaking the hindmost,
that would be death!
For compassion
In war brings victory,
In defense brings invulnerability.
Whomsoever heaven would establish,
It surrounds with a bulwark of compassion.

(Victor H. Mair 译)

Chapter 67

All the world says to me: ‘Great as Tao is, it resembles no form.
Because it is great, therefore it resembles no description. If it resembled any description it would have long since become small.
I have three treasures, which I hold and keep safe: The first is called love; the second is called moderation; the third is called not venturing to go ahead of the world.

Being loving, one can be brave; Being moderate, one can be ample; Not venturing to go ahead of the world, one can be the chief of all officials.

Instead of love, one has only bravery; Instead of moderation, one has only amplitude; Instead of keeping behind, one goes ahead: These lead to nothing but death.

For he who fights with love will win the battle; He who defends with love will be secure. Heaven will save him, and protect him with love.

(Chu Ta-kao 译)

Chapter 67

The whole world says that my way is vast and resembles nothing. It is because it is vast that it resembles nothing. If it resembled anything, it would, long before now, have become small.

I have three treasures
Which I hold and cherish.
The first is known as compassion,
The second is known as frugality,
The third is known as not daring to take the lead in the empire;
Being compassionate one could afford to be courageous,
Being frugal one could afford to extend one’s territory,
Not daring to take the lead in the empire one could afford to be lord over the vessels.

Now, to forsake compassion for courage, to forsake frugality for expansion, to forsake the rear for the lead, is sure to end in death.

Through companion, one will triumph in attack and be impregnable in defence. What heaven succours it protects with the gift of compassion.

(刘殿爵 译)

其他版本:

【译文】

All the world says that, while my Tao is great, it yet appears to be inferior (to other systems of teaching). Now it is just its greatness that makes it seem to be inferior. If it were like any other (system), for long would its smallness have been known!

But I have three precious things which I prize and hold fast. The first is gentleness; the second is economy; and the third is shrinking from taking precedence of others.

With that gentleness I can be bold; with that economy I can be liberal; shrinking from taking precedence of others, I can become a vessel of the highest honour. Now-a-days they give up gentleness and are all for being bold; economy, and are all for being liberal; the hindmost place, and seek only to be foremost;--(of all which the end is) death.

Gentleness is sure to be victorious even in battle, and firmly to maintain its ground. Heaven will save its possessor, by his (very) gentleness protecting him.

【备注】

天下皆谓我大,似不肖,夫唯大,故似不肖,若肖,久矣其细也夫!

我,指圣人。肖:相似。和圣人相比较的对象就是独裁者。

天下人都说圣人伟大,但是,他那平易近人的形象和以往人们心目中显赫的帝王形象不一样。正因为伟大,才和已往的帝王们不一样。如果和他们一样的话,那么,随着历史的发展、时代的变迁,也就逐渐变得渺小了。

这里,老子对圣人和帝王作了一番比较:圣人于平凡中见伟大,帝王于显赫中见渺小;圣人是民心所向,帝王是民心所背;圣人的伟大是长久的,帝王的显赫是一时的。

本章是老子的民主思想。热情讴歌了实行民主法治的圣人,褒扬了圣人的伟大,并对不道的统治者进行了否定和抨击。

附:河上公、王弼本把“天下皆谓我大,似不肖”以下三句置于下章前面,此从魏源本。魏源:“今案其文意,与下章不相属,而与此章相为首尾,故合并之。”这一观点是对的。

我有三宝,持而保之。一曰慈,二曰俭,三曰不敢为天下先。

圣人以慈、俭、不敢为天下先为宝。此三宝,皆体道而得,为人生之至宝,当终生持而不失。慈,即仁慈。爱人之心,恻隐之心,皆慈之德。俭,即节约。节约而不奢侈,收敛自我而不放纵欲望,顺乎道义而有所节制,乃俭之德。不敢为天下先,即以礼为德。守静谦下,进退有节,不锋芒毕露,不以自我为主宰,乃礼之德。老子三宝,实为儒家仁、义、礼三德,只是道家三宝是顺其自然合乎客观规律的。儒家三宝虽不乏客观成分,但是却有着太多的主观规定性。通观下文,老子是从用兵的角度来论述三宝的。

慈,故能勇;俭,故能广;不敢为天下先,故能成器长。今舍慈且勇,舍俭且广,舍后且先,死矣!

慈,可以使士兵勇猛;俭,必然兵足将广;不敢为天下先,则因礼贤下士,懂得用兵之道而成为军队的首长。慈是强调仁爱之心,知爱则知恨,爱得真切则恨得深切,恨深则勇往直前。俭是强调用兵须小心谨慎,恪守道义,切莫乘一时之勇,以牺牲为代价,懂得爱兵才懂得用兵。不敢为天下先则强调在关键时刻应以守为攻,以退为进。倘若“舍慈且勇,舍俭且广,舍后且先”,乃兵家之大忌,完全违背了作战规律,必败无疑。

夫慈,以战则胜,以守则固。天将救之,以慈卫之。

以仁慈之心指导战争,不以牺牲为代价,始终保持优势兵力,这样一来,战则胜,守则固。“天将救之,以慈卫之”,不是说上天可以伸出救援之手,而是说仁慈之德合乎天地之道,合道则胜,违道则败。坚守仁慈之德,是立于不败之地的根本保证。



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