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《道德经》(69)

2014-05-28    来源:网络    【      美国外教 在线口语培训

用兵有言:
吾不敢为主而为客;
不敢进寸而退尺。
是谓行无行,
攘无臂,
扔无敌,
执无兵。
祸莫大于轻敌,
轻敌几丧吾宝。
故抗兵相加,
哀者胜矣。

【现代汉语】

用兵打仗的说过这样的话:“我不敢采取攻势。而采取守势;不敢前进一寸,而要后退一尺。这就是说,摆阵势,象没有阵势可摆一样;挥胳臂,象没有胳膊可举一样,迎敌人,象没有敌人可攻击一样;手执兵器,象没有拿武器一样。最大的祸患莫过于低估了敌人的力量,低估敌人的力量,就几乎丧失了我的“三宝”的原则。所以,两军相对,力量相当时,慈悲的一方可以获胜。

Chapter 69

The strategists have a saying:
“I dare not be host, but would rather be guest;
I advance not an inch, but instead retreat a foot.”
This is called
Marching without ranks,
Bearing nonexistent arms,
Flourishing nonexistent weapons,
Driving back nonexistent enemies.
There is no greater misfortune than not having a worthy foe;
Once I believe there are no worthy foes, I have well-nigh forfeited my treasures.
Therefore,
When opposing forces are evenly matched,
The one who is saddened will be victorious.

(Victor H. Mair 译)

Chapter 69

The great warriors have a saying, “I dare not act as host but would rather be a guest. I dare not advance an inch but would rather retreat a foot.”

So advance but do not use your feet,
Seize but do not use your arms,
Cut but do not use your sword,
Fight but do not use your own power.

There is no greater misfortune than feeling “I have an enemy,”
For when “I” and “enemy” exist together there is no room left for my treasure.
Thus, when two opponents meet the one without an enemy will surely triumph.

(Jonathan Star 译)

Chapter 69

There is the maxim of military strategists;
I dare not be the first to invade, but rather be the invaded.
Dare not press forward an inch, but rather retreat a foot.
That is, to march without formations,
To roll up the sleeves,
To charge not in frontal attacks,
To arm without weapons.
There is no greater catastrophe than to underestimate the enemy.
To underestimate the enemy might entail the loss of my treasures.
Therefore when two equally matched armies meet,
It is the man of sorrow who wins.

(林语堂 译)

其他版本:

【译文】

A master of the art of war has said, 'I do not dare to be the host (to commence the war); I prefer to be the guest (to act on the defensive). I do not dare to advance an inch; I prefer to retire a foot.' This is called marshalling the ranks where there are no ranks; baring the arms (to fight) where there are no arms to bare; grasping the weapon where there is no weapon to grasp; advancing against the enemy where there is no enemy.

There is no calamity greater than lightly engaging in war. To do that is near losing (the gentleness) which is so precious. Thus it is that when opposing weapons are (actually) crossed, he who deplores (the situation) conquers.

【备注】

用兵有言:吾不敢为主而为客,不敢进寸而退尺。是谓行无行,攘无臂,执无兵,扔无敌。

言:格言。为主:举兵伐人,处于攻势。为客:以静制动,处于守势。进寸:前进一寸。退尺:后退一尺。交战的关键时刻,前进“一寸”则全军覆没,后退“一尺”则海阔天空。

凡用兵交战,有进有退,当进则进,当退则退。进则“不武”、“不怒”,只为取得战果;退则审时度势,是为保存优势兵力,决不作无谓的牺牲。

“不敢为主而为客,不敢进寸而退尺”。是“三宝”之一“不敢为天下先”具体的运用。“行无行,攘无臂,执无兵,扔无敌”,是用兵的具体指导思想。“行不行”,是我静敌动,以静制动,以逸待劳;“攘无臂”,是说不要陷入敌人的包围圈。臂:以臂环抱。“执无兵”,是说要有无兵的精神境界。“扔无敌”,是强调抛弃轻敌意识。无敌,即轻敌。

祸莫大于轻敌,轻敌几丧吾宝。故抗兵相若,哀者胜矣。

轻敌思想是用兵的最大祸患。轻敌必骄,骄兵必败,败则丧我“三宝”。所以,两军相抗,兵力相当,有哀悯之心的一方取胜。哀者:以“三宝”为德的一方。

本章是老子的用兵之道。慈、俭、不敢为天下先是用兵者最根本的指导思想。以“三宝”为指导思想的是仁义之师、正义之师。自古正义战胜邪恶,以争、贪为目的的侵略战争必然以失败而告终。

附:河上公、王弼本以“善为士者不武”以上为一章,至“是为配天古之极”为二章,“用兵有言”以下为第三章。此从魏源本。魏源:“章首我有三宝,章末几丧我宝,首尾相应,词旨显然。”



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