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《道德经》(70)

2014-05-29    来源:网络    【      美国外教 在线口语培训

第七十章 微观认识论

吾言甚易知,
甚易行。
天下莫能知,
莫能行。
言有宗,
事有君。
夫唯无知,
是以不我知。
知我者希,
则我者贵。
是以圣人被褐怀玉。

【现代汉语】

我的话很容易了解,很容易实行。天下却没有人能知晓,没有人能实行。说话要有宗旨,做事要有根据。正由于人们无知,因此他们不了解我。了解我的人稀少,以我(的主张)为准则的人难得遇到。因此,有“道”的圣人(的不被了解,恰似)外面穿着粗布衣服、怀内揣着美玉(的人一样)。

Chapter 70

My words are very easy to understand, very easy to practice.
But no one is able to understand them,
And no one is able to practice them.
Words have authority.
Affairs have an ancestry.
It is simply because of their ignorance, that they do not understand me;
Those who understand me are few, thus I am ennobled.
For this reason,
The sage wears coarse clothing over his shoulders, but carries jade within his bosom.

(Victor H. Mair 译)

Chapter 70

My words are so easy to understand, so easy to follow.
And yet nobody in the world understands or follows them.

Words come from an ancestry deeds from a mastery:
when these are unknown, so am I.

In my obscurity is my value.
That’s why the wise wear their jade under common clothes.

(Ursulak Le Guin 译)

Chapter 70

My words are very easy to know, and very easy to practice. Yet no one under heaven understands them; no one puts them into practice. But my words have an ancestry, my deeds have a lord;1 and it is precisely because men do not understand this that they are unable to understand me.

Few then understand me; but it is upon this very fact that my value depends. It is indeed in this sense2 that ‘the Sage wears hair-cloth on top, but carries jade underneath his dress’.

1. To have ‘neither ancestors nor lord’ was to be a wild man, a savage. This is a metaphorical way of saying that all the Sage did and said was related to a definite system of thought.
2. In this sense, and not in the sense that he flies in panic from the horrors of the world. Rich people, in times of tumult, dressed up as peasants and hid their jade treasures under their clothes. Metaphorically ‘to wear haircloth’ etc., came to mean ‘to hide one’s light under a bushel’, ‘to keep one’s knowledge to oneself’.

(Arthur Waley 译)

其他版本:

【译文】

My words are very easy to know, and very easy to practise; but there is no one in the world who is able to know and able to practise them.

There is an originating and all-comprehending (principle) in my words, and an authoritative law for the things (which I enforce). It is because they do not know these, that men do not know me.

They who know me are few, and I am on that account (the more) to be prized. It is thus that the sage wears (a poor garb of) hair cloth, while he carries his (signet of) jade in his bosom.

【备注】

吾言甚易知,甚易行,天下莫能知,莫能行。

我的话非常容易理解,措施也非常容易施行。可是天下却没有人能够真正理解,也没有人能够完全施行。

这句话是说,大道至深至奥,却又简明易行。“甚易知,甚易行”,是对明道之人而言;“莫能知,莫能行”,是对不明道之人而言。问题的关键在于所遵循的认识路线。世人强调宏观认识论,老子强调微观认识论。世人执着于对外部世界的认识,老子则执着于对自我的认识。大道隐藏于自身,只有求之于内,才能认识世界的本质规律。关于道的学说,是老子毕生实践,独立思考的成果,这一成果很难为世人理解和接受。正因为老子考虑到“天下莫能知,莫能行”,所以为世人留下了不朽名著《道德经》以及功夫传人,使大道之学经久不衰,并且越来越为世人所重视。

言有宗,事有君。

宗:世界的本原。言有宗是老子的本体论。人们的人生观和价值观是受世界观支配的,一切言论必须以世界的本原为宗旨。君:自然规律。人类的一切实践活动必须遵循自然规律,接受自然规律的主宰。就自我而言,朴是自我之君,是通过自我修身实践创造出的真我,也是自然规律的化身。创造出真我,也就完成了认识的主体由自我向真我的过渡,从而,真我为君,自我为臣。

一切言论要有它的本原,一切行动要服从客观规律。这是老子的自然观。

夫唯无知,是以不我知。知我者希,则我者贵。是以圣人被褐怀玉。

我:真我,不同于自我之“吾”。我知:用真我来认知世界。知我:明心见性,认识真我。 自我之知是对现象世界的认识,是肤浅的、主观片面的;真我之知是对世界本质的认识,是深刻的、客观全面的。

这一节的意思是说:人们没有真知的唯一原因是因为不能以真我来认知世界,认识真我的人很少,能够效法真我亦即用真我来规范自我的人最可贵。圣人之所以成为圣人,是因为圣人不执着于表面现象而贵在拥有真我。

被褐怀玉:身上穿着粗布衣服,怀里揣着宝玉,说明圣人关注的不是表面现象而是内在实质。



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