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《道德经》(71)

2014-05-30    来源:网络    【      美国外教 在线口语培训

知不知上,
不知知病,
夫唯病病,
是以不病,
圣人不病,
以其病病,
是以不病。

【现代汉语】

知道自己有所不知道,最好;不知道却自以为知道,这是毛病。有“道”的圣人没有这种毛病,因为他把“不知知”当成一种毛病。正因为将毛病当成毛病,因此才不犯这种毛病。

Chapter 71

To realize that you do not understand is a virtue;
Not to realize that you do not understand is a defect.
The reason why
The sage has no defects,
Is because he treats defects as defects.
Thus,
He has no defects.

(Victor H. Mair 译)

Chapter 71

To know there are some things you cannot know is healthy.
Not to know the things you ought to know is illness.
The wise man recognizes the limits of his knowledge;
The foolish man thinks he knows everything.

(Sam Torode and Dwight Goddard 译)

Chapter 71

It is best if one knows he doesn’t know.
He is ill if he doesn’t know but thinks he knows.

Only when one thinks ill of illness
can he stay away from illness.
The Sage does not fall ill.
He thinks ill of illness,
Hence he stays away from illness.

(陈乃扬 译)

其他版本:

【英译】

To know and yet (think) we do not know is the highest (attainment); not to know (and yet think) we do know is a disease.

It is simply by being pained at (the thought of) having this disease that we are preserved from it. The sage has not the disease.

He knows the pain that would be inseparable from it, and therefore he does not have it.

【备注】

知不知,上;不知知,病。夫唯病病,是以不病。圣人不病,以其病病,是以不病。

上:认识的上乘方法。病:认识上的弊病,即以对事物的表面现象的认识为认识上的弊病。认识上的弊病是产生自身疾病和社会疾病的主要原因。要消除一切疾病,必须首先消除认识上的弊病。病病:以认识上的弊病为弊病。

这一节是说:能够认识到常人认识不到的东西,这是掌握了认识的上乘之法。不知道什么是最需要认识的,是认识上的最大弊病。只有以不识道这一认识上的弊病为弊病,才能消除认识上的弊病。圣人没有弊病,是因为他以不识道这一弊病为弊病,所以没有弊病。

本章是老子的微观认识论。通过自我、真我之辩,说明自我认识是肤浅的,不足以消除自身疾病和社会疾病,只有创造真我,认识内在之道,才能真正认识和改造世界。

附:河上公、王弼本分“知不知,上”以上为一章,以下为一章,此从魏源本。通言微观认识论,故分而不当。



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