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《道德经》(75)

2014-06-09    来源:网络    【      美国外教 在线口语培训

第七十五章 义利观

民之饥,
以其上食税之多,
是以饥。
民之难治,
以其上之有为,
是以难治。
民之轻死,
以其上求生之厚,
是以轻死。
夫唯无以生为者,
是贤于贵生。

【现代汉语】

人民陷于饥饿,是因为统治者吞吃的赋税太多,因此发生饥荒。

人民所以难于统治,是因为统治者强作妄为,因此难以统治。

人民所以不怕死,是因为统治者不借一切代价保养自己,老百姓因此冒死反抗。

只有那些不把保命养生看得过分重的人,比过分看重生命的人高明。

Chapter 75

Human hunger is the result of overtaxation.
For this reason,
There is hunger.
The common people are not governable because of their superiors’ actions.
For this reason,
They are not governable.
The people make light of death because of too much emphasis on the quest for life.
For this reason,
They make light of death.
Now,
Only she who acts not for the sake of life
Is wiser than those who value life highly.

(Victor H. Mair 译)

Chapter 75

People are hungry.
When rulers tax grain,
People are hungry.
People are rebellious.
When rulers are active,
People are rebellious.
People ignore death.
When searching only for life’s bounty,
People ignore death.
Only those who do not strive after life
Truly respect life.

(Stephen Addiss & Stanley Lombardo 译)

Chapter 75

The people suffer from famine
Because the ruler levies too much tax-grain.
Thus they suffer from famine.
The people are difficult to rule
Because the ruler too often takes action.
Thus they are difficult to rule.
The people take life lightly
Because the ruler longs for life so avidly.
Thus they take life lightly.

(王柯平 译)

其他版本:

【英译】

The people suffer from famine because of the multitude of taxes consumed by their superiors. It is through this that they suffer famine.

The people are difficult to govern because of the (excessive) agency of their superiors (in governing them). It is through this that they are difficult to govern.

The people make light of dying because of the greatness of their labours in seeking for the means of living. It is this which makes them think light of dying. Thus it is that to leave the subject of living altogether out of view is better than to set a high value on it.

【备注】

民之饥,以其上食税之多,是以饥。

在专制社会里,统治者的本性是贪婪的。劳动人民之所以遭受饥荒,是因为统治者对人民的剥削太残酷。统治者的苛捐杂税越多,劳动人民所剩越少。劳动人民的饥荒是因统治者的不道造成的。

民之难治,以其上之有为,是以难治。

劳动人民之所以难以治理,在于统治者实行有为之治即人治。有为之治就是垄断权力、依仗自己的智力实行独裁统治。自恃有为的统治者,无视人民的智慧和力量,妄想凭借强大的国家机器与人民为敌。面对无道的统治者,失去一切权利的人民群众必然要作各种各样的斗争,国家自然难以治理。

民之轻死,以其上求生之厚,是以轻死。

劳动人民之所以轻视死亡,敢于和统治阶级作针锋相对的斗争,是因为统治者贪得无厌,只去满足自己奢侈的生活,而不顾及劳动人民的死活。统治者厚己,必薄人民,所以,人民才敢于和统治阶级以死相拼。

夫唯无以生为者,是贤于贵生。

只有那些不以厚待自己的生命为人生目的,而是全心全意为人民服务的人,才是真正贤于以自我生命为贵的人。

本章是老子的义利观。老子从“民之饥”、“民之难治”、“民之轻死”三个方面,揭示出统治者重利忘义、贵己贱民、损人利己的不道行为,是社会罪恶的根源,归结出只有以人民的利益为重,让权利永远属于人民的人,才是贤明的圣人。



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