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《道德经》(77)

2014-06-16    来源:网络    【      美国外教 在线口语培训

第七十七章 革命

天之道,
其犹张弓与?
高者抑之,
下者举之。
有余者损之,
不足者补之。
天之道,
损有余而补不足。
人之道则不然,
损不足以奉有余。
孰能有余以奉天下?
唯有道者。
是以圣人为而不恃,
功成而不处。
其不欲见贤。

【现代汉语】

自然的法则,岂不象弓拉开了弦一样吗?弦位高了就把它压低一些;弦位低了,就把它拈起来一点;弦长有多余的,就加以减少,不足的则加以补充。自然的规则,是减少有余的,用来补充不足的。人类社会的现实法则,就不是这样了,它是剥夺不足的,用来供奉有余的。

谁能够把有余的拿来供给天下(不足的)?只有有“道”的人(才能如此)。因此有“道”的圣人有所作为而不自恃己能,有所成就而不居功自傲,他不愿意表现自己的聪明才干。

Chapter 77

The Way of heaven is like the bending of a bow -
the upper part is pressed down,
the lower part is raised up,
the part that has too much is reduced,
the part that has too little is increased.
Therefore,
The Way of heaven
reduces surplus to make up for scarcity;
The Way of man
reduces scarcity and pays tribute to surplus.
Who is there that can have a surplus and take from it to pay tribute to heaven?
Surely only one who has the Way!
For this reason,
The sage
acts but does not possess,
completes his work but does not dwell on it.
In this fashion,
he has no desire to display his worth.

(Victor H. Mair 译)

Chapter 77

May not the Way (or Tao) of Heaven be compared to the (method of) bending a bow? The (part of the bow) which was high is brought low, and what was low is raised up. (So Heaven) diminishes where there is superabundance, and supplements where there is deficiency.

It is the Way of Heaven to diminish superabundance, and to supplement deficiency. It is not so with the way of man. He takes away from those who have not enough to add to his own superabundance.

Who can take his own superabundance and therewith serve all under heaven? Only he who is in possession of the Tao!

Therefore the (ruling) sage acts without claiming the results as his; he achieves his merit and does not rest (arrogantly) in it:--he does not wish to display his superiority.

(James Legge 译)

Chapter 77

The “way” of Heaven
is similar to pulling a bow [for shooting at a target], isn’t it?
Aim it lower if it is too high;
aim it higher if it is too low;
reduce the strength if it is too full;
increase the strength if it is not full enough.
The “way” of Heaven
Reduces the surplus, and uses it to add to the insufficient.
However, the “way” of humanity is not like this.
People intentionally reduce the insufficient and add it to the surplus.
Who is able to support the whole country with surplus?
It is only the person with “Dao”.
Therefore, the “sage”
causes things to happen but never feels it is enough;
succeeds but never takes the credit for himself;
and never wants to show off his own skills.

(任远 译)

其他版本:

【英译】

May not the Way (or Tao) of Heaven be compared to the (method of) bending a bow? The (part of the bow) which was high is brought low, and what was low is raised up. (So Heaven) diminishes where there is superabundance, and supplements where there is deficiency.

It is the Way of Heaven to diminish superabundance, and to supplement deficiency. It is not so with the way of man. He takes away from those who have not enough to add to his own superabundance.

Who can take his own superabundance and therewith serve all under heaven? Only he who is in possession of the Tao!

Therefore the (ruling) sage acts without claiming the results as his; he achieves his merit and does not rest (arrogantly) in it:--he does not wish to display his superiority.

【备注】

天之道,其犹张弓欤?高者抑之,下者举之。有余者损之,不足者补之。

天之道:自然规律。自然规律,不就象拉弓一样吗?居高的(箭)向下压制,居下的(弦)则向上托起。削减凸出的,补足缺陷的。

透过自然规律,可以认识社会规律,社会规律必须符合自然规律。这段话的深层意思是说,合乎道的社会规律不就象拉弓一样吗?统治者(高者)压迫人民,人民(下者)就起来推翻它。剥夺官僚豪绅(有余者)的财富,分给贫苦的劳动人民(不足者)。

“张弓”,比喻阶级矛盾的对立程度,矛盾对立得越厉害,转化得越快。相反,矛盾则处于缓慢发展状态。

天之道,损有余而补不足。人之道则不然,损不足以奉有余。

自然之道,是削减高出的,填补低洼的。合乎自然规律的社会规律应当是减少富有者的财富,来补足贫穷者。但是,世人所遵循的道路则是减少贫穷者的财富来不断增加富有者的财富。

这里,老子把“天之道”和“人之道”作了鲜明的对照,借“天之道”来衬托“人之道”的不公。“天之道”体现的是集体主义,“人之道”体现的则是个人主义。个人主义是违背自然规律的。这表明了老子对社会历史的深刻认识,个人主义是造成贫富悬殊、两极分化、社会矛盾加剧的根源。

孰能有余以奉天下?唯有道者。

谁能主动地把自己多余的财富奉献给天下穷人呢?回答是:只有那些有道德的人。

在这里,老子所要强调的是,社会的物质文明必须以精神文明作依托。精神文明是社会繁荣和稳定的根本保障。如果人人都能彻悟大道,与天地合德,那么,“我为人人,人人为我”的“天之道”社会就会成为现实。

是以圣人为而不恃,功成而不处,其不欲见贤。

所以,圣人推行天道,不去凭借自我之智,而是充分依靠群众的智慧和力量,实行民主法治,走集体主义道路。功德圆满而不居功自傲,不依仗手中的权力为自己谋私利,这是因为圣人不以个人的金钱财富当作衡量自己才德的标准。

圣人推行天道,以身作则,率先垂范,不以名利之心诱导人民,处处以人民的利益为重,体现的是集体主义的道德风范,这就自然成为人民群众道德实践的楷模。

本章体现的是老子的大同理想。面对剥削阶级的反动统治,老子提出了“高者抑之,下者举之”的革命斗争路线,决不能向反动势力妥协。推翻反动统治阶级以后,实行民主法治建设和集体主义道德教育,以集体主义取代个人主义,最终实现社会大同。



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