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《道德经》(81)

2014-06-23    来源:网络    【      美国外教 在线口语培训

第八十一章 总论

信言不美,
美言不信。
善者不辩,
辩者不善。
知者不博,
博者不知。
圣人不积,
既以为人己愈有,
既以与人己愈多。
天之道,
利而不害。
圣人之道,
为而不争。

【现代汉语】

诚实的言谈并不漂亮,漂亮的话语并不诚实。

善良的人不巧辩,巧辩的人不善良。

真正懂的人并不广博,广博的人不能深入地懂得。

“圣人”不私自保留什么,他尽全力帮助别人,自己反而更充足;他尽可能给与别人,自己反而更丰富。自然的法则,是利物而不害物;“圣人”的准则,是帮助别人而不和别人争夺。

Chapter 81

Sincere words are not beautiful,
Beautiful words are not sincere.
He who knows is not learned,
He who is learned does not know.
He who is good does not have much,
He who has much is not good.
The sage does not hoard.
The more he does for others,
the more he has himself;
The more he gives to others,
the more his own bounty increases.
Therefore,
The Way of heaven benefits but does not harm,
The Way of man acts but does not contend.

(Victor H. Mair 译)

Chapter 81

The truth is not always beautiful,
nor beautiful words the truth.

Those who have virtue,
have no need of argument for its own sake,
for they know that argument is of no avail.

Those who have knowledge of the natural way
do not train themselves in cunning,
whilst those who use cunning to rule their lives,
and the lives of others,
are not knowledgeable of the Tao,
nor of natural happiness.

The sage seeks not to have a store
of things or knowledge, for he knows,
the less of these he has, the more he has,
and that the more he gives,
the greater his abundance.

The way of the sage is pointed
but does not harm.

The way of the sage
is to work without cunning.

(Stan Rosenthal 译)

Chapter 81

True words are not fine-sounding;
Fine-sounding words are not true.
The good man does not prove by argument;
The he who proves by argument is not good.
True wisdom is different from much learning;
Much learning means little wisdom.
The Sage has no need to hoard;
When his own last scrap has been used up on behalf of others,
Lo, he has more than before!
When his own last scrap has been used up in giving to other,
Lo, his stock is even greater than before!
For heaven’s way is to sharpen without cutting,
And the Sage’s way is to act without striving.

(Arthur Waley 译)

Chapter 81

The truth isn’t flashy.
Flashy words aren’t true.

Educated people aren’t always smart.
Smart people don’t always have an education.

Good people don’t argue.
People who argue aren’t good.

The Masters don’t hang on to things.
They’re always doing something for other people,
so they always have more to give.
They give away whatever they have,
so what they have is worth more.

If you want to get right with Tao,
help other people, don’t hurt them.
The Masters always work with people,
never against them.

(Ron Hogan 译)

其他版本:

【英译】

Sincere words are not fine; fine words are not sincere. Those who are skilled (in the Tao) do not dispute (about it); the disputatious are not skilled in it. Those who know (the Tao) are not extensively learned; the extensively learned do not know it.

The sage does not accumulate (for himself). The more that he expends for others, the more does he possess of his own; the more that he gives to others, the more does he have himself.

With all the sharpness of the Way of Heaven, it injures not; with all the doing in the way of the sage he does not strive.

【备注】

信言不美,美言不信。

信,是凭据、根据的意思。美:修饰、美化。

老子言道论德是“言有宗,事有君”的,是对治身实践经验的哲学总结,并非抽象的凭空而谈。因此,他所构建的道德这一哲学大厦,虽然仅有五千余言,而且历经两千多年,不但没有为历史所尘封,反而随着科学的发展越来越放射出夺目的光芒,为世界各国人民所重视,就是印正了“信言不美,美言不信”这一哲言,即有根有据的言论不需要用华丽的辞藻来修饰,但它揭示的是真理;主观、唯心的言论是缺乏科学依据的,绝对经不起历史的检验。

自然的才是最美的。老子的《道德经》文笔简洁、朴实,章节之间,乍看起来杂乱无序,但她文约义丰,博大精深,有着高度完整的哲学体系,是对自然科学、社会科学和人体科学的高度概括和总结。可以说,老子的《道德经》是世界上最美最美的哲理诗篇。

“信言不美,美言不信”,表明了老子的自然主义思想。

善者不辩,辩者不善。

善者:通过自身实践证悟大道的人。

这一句话的意思是说,彻悟大道的人不诡辩,诡辩的人没有彻悟大道。真知来源于自我的实修实证,只凭主观愿望、主观想象来辩论是是非非,是不科学的。自《道德经》问世以来,内修家视为灵文至宝,称为《道德真经》,并尊老子为“太上老君”、“道德天尊”,奉为道家鼻祖。另有文人墨客则总是不停地辩论其是是非非,有消极避世、保守倒退说,有南面之术说,有主观、唯心、片面说,有神秘主义说,等等,持这些观点的大概就是老子所说的不善者。

“善者不辩,辩者不善”,表明了老子的实践见证真理的辩证法思想。

知者不博,博者不知。

博:知识多而杂,只注重书本知识的积累。

具有真知灼见的人不博学于外,博学于外的人不会有真知灼见。知者,求知于大道,获取真知,是“观妙”和“观徼”相结合。博者,只执着于研究书本,获取的只是现象世界的知识。探求真理于事物的表面现象的人,永远打不开真理的大门。据说,当年“文通万国,学超三教”的胡适博士,在攻读《道藏》时,被道德家的隐语秘诀拒之门外,从而判定道家书“多是半通不通的鬼话”。这也正是印证了“知者不博,博者不知”这一哲言。

“知者不博,博者不知”,体现了老子的微观认识论。

圣人不积:既以为人,己愈有;既以与人,己愈多。

积:积累财富。既:竭尽。

圣人不刻意积累财富,一心为众人着想,自己反而愈富有;竭尽全力地奉献于人们大众,自己反而得到的越多。这就如同众多的历史伟人,他们并没有为了金钱和名声而活着,反而获得了更多的福利和荣誉。

这一节,老子用辩证的观点,为世人指明了经营之道和处世之道。体现了“我为人人,人人为我”的集体主义思想。

天之道,利而不害;圣人之道,为而不争。

自然规律是利万物而不害万物。圣人效法自然,乐于奉献而不索取。

这是老子效法自然的思想。表明了老子的世界观、人生观和价值观。

本章是对《道德经》的概括和总结,昭示了老子彻底的自然主义思想、科学的辩证法和微观认识论。并号召人们走集体主义道路,遵自然之道,行圣人之道。



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