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美国新闻业面临重大挑战

2014-04-29    来源:voanews    【      美国外教 在线口语培训

The business of providing news and current affairs commentary in the United States is facing big challenges as the older audience diminishes and new digital services struggle to gain a foothold with younger people. The future of journalism may depend on the success of income diversification in media companies.
在美国,提供新闻和时事评论的从业人员正面临着巨大挑战,因为老观众不断减少,新的数字媒体服务正在年轻人群中获得立足之地。新闻业的未来可能取决于媒体公司收入的多样化。

Newspaper readership is in a steep decline in the United States as younger people seek news on the Internet.
随着年轻人在互联网上获取新闻,美国阅读报纸的人数大幅下降。

Newsweek magazine went exclusively digital in December 2012, but last month started printing again under its new owner, IBT Media.
新闻周刊杂志从2012年12月起只出电子版,但是被新东家IBT媒体集团收购后,上月重新开始印刷。

But IBT’s director of audience engagement, Kate Gardiner, says the print magazine’s target audience is not young.
但是IBT受众参与部主任加德纳说,印刷版杂志的受众不是年轻人。

“Those people are going to be an older demographic, they are going to be wealthier, they are going to be much more engaged in international policy and economics and things like that, but our main users on social media are going to be much younger," said Gardiner.
加德纳说:“受众会是更年长的群体,他们更富有,更多地参与和关注国际政策和经济以及类似的事务,而我们的社交媒体用户更年轻。”

Gardiner was one of the many news company representatives promoting digital online products at the recent South by Southwest Conference in Austin, Texas.
在德克萨斯州奥斯汀最近举行的大会上,加德纳是推崇数字在线产品的众多新闻公司代表之一。

The Knight Foundation’s Michael Manness says digital journalism is still in a wild development stage.
奈特基金会的曼内斯说,数字新闻仍处于一个任意发展的阶段。

“Anyone can publish, anyone can produce, anyone can have a voice in it, so it is a lot of noise right now," said Manness.
曼内斯说:“任何人都能发表、产出,发声,所以现在有很多噪音。”

Younger people tend to grab news in short bursts, showing little patience for long format, in-depth stories.
年轻人希望瞬间获取新闻,对长篇幅、有深度的报道缺乏耐心。

Still, Maness thinks news organizations with serious content can win them.
但曼内斯认为,传播严肃内容的新闻组织仍可以征服他们。

“They may not go in depth, but they have a general sense of what is going on, so I think there is a real opportunity for news brands to build out depth, context and think about those new narratives in different ways," he said.
曼内斯说:“他们可能不会深看,但是会对正在发生的一切有大体的认识,所以我认为媒体品牌的确有机会推出深度内容和相关背景,并考虑新的不同的叙事方式。”

Some online news companies have found their niche by focusing on particular issues or news beats, often on a local or state level.
一些在线新闻公司已找到自己的定位,即聚焦于特定的议题或新闻事件,通常是当地或州内新闻。

One of the most successful is the Texas Tribune, which covers public policy and politics in the state with funding that includes private donations and sideline business ventures.
最成功的案例之一是《德克萨斯论坛报》,它报道公共政策和州内政治,资金来源包括私人捐助和副业经营。

This could be a model for other news sites, according to Jake Batsell, who works under a fellowship at the Texas Tribune. He spoke to VOA via Skype.
得到《德克萨斯论坛报》资助并为该报工作的班特塞尔通过网络电话对美国之音说,这能成为其他新闻网站的一个样板。

“You are basically trying to find five or six streams of revenue that almost operate as mini-businesses that collectively combine to generate enough revenue to keep you in business," said Batsell.
班特塞尔说:“你基本是要寻找五、六种收入来源,它们是微小企业,但加起来就能产生足够让你维持正常运转的资金。”

The Texas Tribune has won acclaim for its stories and is slowly building a statewide audience through what Batsell says is integrity based on financial diversity.
《德克萨斯论坛报》因其报道而赢得赞誉,并慢慢在全州内凝聚了一个读者群,班特塞尔说,这就是基于资金来源的多样性。

“If a donor were to try to exert influence and control the news content, they have more backing and more standing to go back to that person and say, ‘Here is your donation back'", he said.
班特塞尔说:“如果捐赠者试图控制或影响新闻内容,他们会有更多底气找到那个人说,‘这是你的捐款,还给你。’”

Batsell says such news organizations keep a watchful eye on government, but their effectiveness ultimately relies on a large audience among the citizens whose interests they serve.
班特塞尔说,这类新闻组织会时刻关注政府事务,但是它们的效益最终取决于它们为其利益服务的大量受众。(voanews)



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