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双语:为什么坏习惯不容易改变?

2014-11-11    来源:原版英语学习    【      美国外教 在线口语培训

双语:为什么坏习惯不容易改变?

Uh-oh, the new year’s just begun and already you’re finding it hard to keep those resolutions to junk the junk food, get off the couch or kick smoking. There's a biological reason a lot of our bad habits are so hard to break一they get wired into our brains
噢喔,新的一年才刚刚开始,你就发现很难将“告别垃圾食品、远离沙发、戒烟”这些好习惯坚持下去了。其实,很难改掉坏习惯也是有个生物学的原因—这些坏习惯根植于我们的大脑中。

That’s not an excuse to give up. Understanding how unhealthy behaviors become ingrained has scientists learning some tricks that may help good habits replace the bad.
这可不是劝人知难而退而找借口。了解是什么原因让不健康的习惯变得根深蒂固,可以启发科学家们研究出一些让好习惯代替坏习惯的“技巧”。

"Why are bad habits stronger? You’re fighting against the power of an immediate reward,”says Dr. Nora Volkow, director of the National Institute on Drug Abuse and an authority on the brain's pleasure pathway.
诺拉·沃尔科夫博士说:“为什么坏习惯更加强大?因为它能带来即时的稿赏,且这种即时搞赏力量很强大,你能对抗吗?”沃尔科夫博士是美国国家药物滥用研究所主任,同时也是大脑快乐通道方面的权威人士。

"We all as creatures are hard-wired that way, to give greater value to an immediate reward as opposed to something that’s delayed," Volkow says.
沃尔科夫说道:“作为人,我们的这种本性决定了我们会更看重眼前的利益,而不是迟来的好处。”

Just how that bit of happiness turns into a habit involves a pleasure-sensing chemical named dopamine. It conditions the brain to want that reward again and again一reinforcing the connection each time一especially when it gets the right cue from your environment.
能将仅仅一点儿快乐的感觉转化为一种习惯的,这与一种感知快乐的化学物质多巴胺有关。多巴胺刺激着大脑,不断地期望要得到这种稿赏—通过加强快乐感与这种行为之间联系的方式—尤其是当它能从周围环境中得到正确的暗示时。

People tend to overestimate their ability to resist temptations around them,thus undermining attempts to shed bad habits, says experimental psychologist Loran Nordgren,  an assistant professor at Northwestern University's Kellogg School of Management.
西北大学凯洛格管理学院副教授、实验心理学家罗兰·诺格伦称,人们往往高估自身抵抗身边诱惑的能力,这使得他们为摆脱坏习惯而做出的各种努力功亏一篑。

Even scientists who recognize it can fall prey.
即使是能够清楚认识到这一点的科学家也难以幸免。


"I don't like popcorn. But every time I go to the cinema, I have to eat it,"Volkow says. "It's fascinating."
沃尔科夫说:“我不喜欢吃爆米花,但是每次走进电影院我都会吃。它的诱惑难以抗拒。”

A movement to pay people for behavior changes may exploit that connection,as some companies offer employees outright payments or insurance rebates for adopting better habits.
一项“为举止、行为的变化而买单”的运动或许就是对这种联系的利用。在此项运动中,一些公司给雇员提供“即时报酬”或是“保险回扣”,以促使他们形成更好的习惯。

However paying for behavior plays out, researchers say there are some steps that may help counter your brain's hold on bad habits.
研究人员称,不管这项运动结果如何,通过采取某些行动来对抗坏习惯对大脑的吸引力的方法都是可行的。

Repeat, repeat, repeat the new behavior一the same routine at the same time of day. Resolved to exercise? Doing it at the same time of the morning, rather than fitting it in haphazardly,makes the striatum recognize the habit so eventually, "if you don't do it, you feel awful,”says Volkow the neuroscientist, who’s also a passionate runner.
你要做的就是:重复、重复、再重复你的新举动—直至成为每天固定时间的例行公事。下决心去锻炼?那就在每天早上同一时间行动起来,这好过随意找个时间,最终,大脑纹状体会接受这个新习惯。神经学家沃尔科夫也是一个热爱跑步的人,他说:“当你养成锻炼习惯后,如果你哪天没锻炼,你就会感觉很糟糕。”

Exercise itself raises dopamine levels, so eventually your brain will get a feel-good hit even if your muscles protest.
运动本身能提升多巴胺的水平,因此,运动后,尽管你的肌肉会感觉酸痛,但是你的大脑还是会感觉良好。

Reward yourself with something you really desire, Volkow stresses. You exercised all week? Stuck to your diet? Buy a book, a great pair of jeans, or try a fancy restaurant一safer perhaps than a box of cookies because the price inhibits the quantity.
沃尔科夫强调说,要奖励自己一些真正想要的东西。你坚持锻炼了一整周?你严格遵循了节食食谱?那就给自己买本书,买条漂亮的牛仔裤,或者去一家奇特的餐馆就餐—这多半会比吃一盒曲奇饼安全,因为餐厅的价格会提醒你别吃太多。


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