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双语:各国圣诞习俗知多少?

2014-12-22    来源:英语点津    【      美国外教 在线口语培训

双语:各国圣诞习俗知多少?

Most of you are familiar with American, Canadian and English Christmas customs, which are largely the same, including Santa bringing presents that sit below a lit up tree. But have you ever wondered just how Christmas is celebrated in China, or in Finland? Whether you’re just interested in learning more about other cultures or want to incorporate some new traditions into your holiday celebrations, this article is filled with all you need to know about international Christmases.
大多数人对英美加这些国家如何过圣诞都很熟悉。它们的圣诞习俗大同小异,包括圣诞老人在点亮的圣诞树下放上礼物。但是你曾想过中国、芬兰这些国家是如何庆祝圣诞的吗?不管你是有兴趣了解其他文化,还是想为自己的圣诞庆祝添点新花样,这篇文章将给你所有“必知”的不同国家的圣诞知识。

Poland
波兰

For Poles, Christmas Eve is a night of magic when animals are said to talk and people have the power to predict the future. It’s a time for families to gather and reconcile any differences, and to remember loved ones who have gone before them.
对于波兰人来说,平安夜是充满魔力的一夜。据说动物在这一夜可以与人说话,而人有预测未来的能力。家人们会在平安夜团聚一堂,调和矛盾,并怀念过世的亲人。
 
Wigilia (vee-GEEL-yah), which literally means "vigil," or waiting for the birth of Baby Jesus, is considered more important than Christmas Day itself.
对波兰人来说,“守夜”或“等待婴孩耶稣的诞生”(Wigilia)比圣诞节那一天更重要。
 
Wigilia is a meatless meal because, years ago, Roman Catholics fasted for the four weeks of Advent, including Christmas Eve. In the past there were thirteen main dishes (representing the Apostles and Christ), but, these days, many families have replaced this tradition with a twelve-fruit compote for dessert.
“守夜”晚餐是素食,因为多年前,罗马天主教徒在降临节四周一直到平安夜都斋戒。过去晚餐有13道主菜(代表耶稣和他的使徒)。但是如今许多家庭转而选择12样水果的果盘甜点。
 
The foods are to represent the four corners of the earth -- mushrooms from the forest, grain from the fields, fruit from the orchards, and fish from the lakes and sea.
食物代表地球的天涯海角——蘑菇来自于森林,谷物来自于田地,水果来自于果园,而鱼来自于湖海。
 
Meals vary from family to family but usually include a special soup followed by many elegant fish preparations, vegetables, and pierogi.
每家的饭菜都不同,但通常都包括一种特制的汤,还有许多精致的鱼肉餐、蔬菜和半圆形小酥饼。

Czech Republic
捷克共和国

The Czech version of Saint Nick is known as Svaty Mikulas, who is said to climb down to Earth from the heavens using a golden rope. Mikulas is accompanied by an angel and a devil who help him decide which girls and boys deserve treats and toys, and which ones deserve a swatch.
捷克人称圣诞老人为“米库拉斯”(Svaty Mikulas)。据说他用一根金绳从天堂爬到了大地。陪在他身边的是一位天使和一位恶魔。他们俩决定哪些男孩女孩值得得到美食和玩具而哪些孩子该被鞭打一顿。
 
There are a lot of fortune-telling traditions that are associated with Christmas as well. One involves a family member cutting a branch from a cherry tree and putting it inside in water. If it blooms in time for Christmas it is good luck. It also may represent that the winter will be short, or if a single woman picked the branch, it could mean she will get married in the next year.
圣诞节也有一些算命的习俗。其中有一个是家庭成员从樱桃树上砍下一根树枝并把它放入水中。如果它在圣诞节开了花,就表示好运。它也代表冬季会很短。倘若一位单身女子捡到了这根树枝,这表示她在明年将会结婚。
 
On Christmas Eve, single woman also try to see if they will get married in the next year by standing outside with their back to their front door, removing one of their shoes and throwing it over their shoulder. If the shoe lands with the toe facing the door, then she will marry in the next year. If not, she will have to wait at least another 12 months.
在平安夜,单身女子还会通过“扔鞋子”来测试自己明年是否会结婚。她们在屋外背对前门站着,脱下一只鞋,把它从肩上向后扔。如果鞋子落地时鞋头朝门,这就表示她们明年将会结婚。如果鞋子鞋尾朝门,她们就得再等个一年了。

Austria
奥地利

Austrian children still get to celebrate the arrival of Ol’ Saint Nick, but they also have to brace themselves for the arrival of his evil counterpart, Krampus. Where Saint Nicholas rewards good behavior with treats and toys on December 6, the demonic Krampus arrives on December 5, looking to punish all the bad children. His weapons of choice are birch switches to beat children with and burlap sacks to kidnap them and throw them into the river. The worst part is that local men actually dress up like Krampus (just like many men dress up as Santa in America) and terrorize the streets. In some villages, kids are even made to run what is known as a Krampus-gauntlet, in an attempt to outrun the switches.
地利的孩子们庆祝圣诞老人的到来,但同时他们也得迎来邪恶的克拉普斯(Krampus)。圣诞老人在12月6号给表现好的孩子送美食、发玩具。而恶魔般的克拉普斯5号就到了,意在惩罚所有的坏孩子。他把桦树枝做的鞭子当武器,还用粗麻袋绑架他们,把他们扔到河里。最糟糕的是,当地的男士会打扮的像克拉普斯(就像许多美国人打扮的像圣诞老人一样),在街上吓唬小孩子。在很多村庄里,很多小孩子甚至必须接受“克拉普斯大挑战”,他们努力比克拉普斯的鞭子跑得更快。

France
法国

Children of East France have an evil visitor to keep them behaving all year long. Le Pere Fouettard, which translates into “The Whipping Father,” accompanies Saint Nicolas in on December 6. While St. Nick gives good children presents, Le Pere Fouettard gives coal and whippings to the naughty children.
法国东部的孩子们有个邪恶的造访者,他叫“鞭子老爹”(Le Pere Fouettard),确保孩子们一整年都表现乖巧。圣诞老人12月6号给孩子分发礼物时,他也陪伴左右。“鞭子老爹”会给淘气的孩子煤块和一顿鞭子。
 
One of the most popular origin stories of the character say that he was a greedy inn keeper who killed three rich boys on their way to boarding school. In many versions of the story, he even eats the children. Whether or not he cannibalizes the boys, the story ends when Saint Nick finds out and resurrects the children and forces Le Pere Fouettard to act as his servant throughout time.
关于“鞭子老爹”这个人物的起源,最流行的一个版本是说,他是一个贪婪的旅馆老板,在三个富男孩上学路上把他们杀了。很多其他版本甚至流传他吃小孩。故事的结局是圣诞老人找到并救出了孩子们,还迫使“鞭子老爹”永世做他的仆人。
 
Aside from The Whipping Father, another popular French tradition involves making a cake that looks like a traditional Yule log, known as buche de Noel. Christmas trees never really caught on in the country and while most people don’t have any use for an actual Yule log, the cake is a fun and festive substitute. Some of the buche de Nol can get fairly elaborate and even involve meringue mushrooms and edible flower decorations.
除了“鞭子老爹”的故事,法国圣诞还有一个传统是做“圣诞柴蛋糕”。其实圣诞树从未风靡全法国。虽然圣诞柴对法国人来说没什么实际用途,但这个蛋糕代表了人们的愉快和节日的喜庆。有些“圣诞柴蛋糕”做得相当精致,甚至有蛋白酥皮小蘑菇和能吃的花朵装饰品。


Germany
德国

Belsnickel is the German Santa’s dark enforcer, but he’s not nearly as evil as Krumpus or The Whipping Father. Instead he just wears fur from head to toe and gives good girls and boys candy and bad children coal and switches.
贝尔森克(Belsnickel)是德国圣诞老人的惩罚执行者,但他没克拉普斯或鞭子老爹那么邪恶。他从头到脚穿着毛皮,给好孩子们发糖果,给坏孩子们煤块和一顿鞭子。
 
Many are decorated with a wreath known as an “Adventskranz.” These wreaths have four candles which serve as a sort of weekly advent calendar, as each Sunday marks the opportunity to light a new candle.
许多地方都装饰有“降临节花环”(Adventskranz)。花环上有四只蜡烛,代表着降临节周历。每周日都点燃一只蜡烛。四只都被点燃时就意味着圣诞节到了。
 
On December 21, St. Thomas Day is believed to be the shortest day of the year and anyone who arrives late to work is called a “Thomas Donkey.” They are also given a cardboard donkey and made fun of throughout the rest of the day.
12月21日是“圣·托马斯日”(St. Thomas Day),据说是一年中最短的一天。任何在这一天上班迟到的人都被叫做“托马斯驴子”,他们还会收到一个纸板做的驴子,并且被嘲笑一整天。
 
Like many places in Europe, the Christmas tree is kept secret from the children until Christmas Eve. The parents bring the tree in, decorate it with candies, tinsel, lights and toys, put presents and plates of candy treats under the tree and then ring a bell signaling that the children can enter. The children then get to eat snacks and the whole family opens presents.
跟欧洲许多地方一样,在德国,圣诞树直到平安夜才能让孩子们看到。父母们把圣诞树拉出来,装饰上蜡烛、金属亮片、彩灯和玩具,把礼物和一碟碟的糖果放在树下,然后摇一下铃,表示孩子们可以进来了。小孩子们便可以吃小吃,全家一起打开礼物。

Greece
希腊

Residents will fill a shallow bowl with water and then tie wire with a wooden cross and a sprig of basil over the bowl. Once a day the cross and basil are dipped into holy water, which is then sprinkled through the house. This ceremony is used to keep out goblins, known as Killikantzaroi out of the house.
希腊人会将一只浅碗灌满水,然后用金属丝把一个木制十字架和罗勒小枝系在碗上。每天都要把十字架和罗勒枝浸到圣水中,然后满屋撒圣水。这个礼节是用来防止小妖精(Killikantzaroi)进屋。
 
These mischievous goblins that come from the center of the earth only appear during the twelve days of Christmas. While bratty, they’re not really evil and tend to do bratty things like souring milk and extinguishing fires. Because they are said to enter the house through the fireplace, fires are left burning all day and night during this time of year.
这些爱恶作剧的小妖精来自地球的中心,只在圣诞这十二天出现。它们虽然讨厌,但不是真正的恶魔,只是会做讨厌的事情,例如撒出牛奶和熄灭炉火。据说它们是从房子的壁炉进来的,因此希腊人在圣诞期间白天和夜晚都会燃着炉火。

Iceland
冰岛

Icelandic children were once told to behave or they would be eaten by a pair of ogres that lived up in the hills. The characters were considered to be so terrifying that a public decree banned the use of these stories to scare children into behaving.
冰岛的孩子们曾经被告知,如果表现不好就会被住在山上的食人魔夫妇吃掉。由于“食人魔”形象太过恐怖,冰岛颁布了一项公开法令,禁止用这个故事来吓唬不听话的小孩子。
 
Instead of talking about the ogre couple, parents instead started telling stories of the ogre’s children, the Jolasveinar, who are bad, but not nearly as evil as their parents. Jolasveinars were originally said to play tricks on people and steal food, but now they are responsible for giving gifts to children. Bad children don’t get presents though, they get potatoes or other items that remind them that they weren’t forgotten, but don’t deserve real presents.
父母们不再讲食人魔夫妇,转而讲他们俩的孩子(Jolasveinar)。食人魔小孩很坏,但不像他的爸妈那样邪恶。据说食人魔小孩经常捉弄人们,还偷食物。但他们现在负责给孩子们发礼物。坏孩子们虽然得不到礼物,但他们得到土豆或者其他物品,这是用来告诉他们,他们没被遗忘,但不值得得到真正的礼物。

Italy
意大利

In Italy, there is no Santa, but instead there a woman called a Befana that performs the general duties of Saint Nick. The story is that the three wise men stopped during their travels and asked a woman for food and shelter. She said no, but later realized her mistake when it was too late. She now travels the earth looking for the baby Jesus and on January 6th, she leaves kids a sock filled with candy or a lump of coal.
意大利没有圣诞老人,但有一个叫贝法娜(Befana)的女巫,她履行圣诞老人一般的职责。据说从前有三位智者在旅行中请求一位女士给些吃的,并能让他们留宿,但女士拒绝了。她接着意识到了自己的错误,但这已经太晚了。如今她环游全球,寻找婴孩时的耶稣,并会在1月6号给孩子们留下装满糖果或煤块的袜子。

Japan
日本

While most Japanese residents are not Christian, the majority of people still celebrate Christmas just for the fun of it. Unsurprisingly, the rituals are slightly different than those we are used to. Because KFC has marketed the idea that fried chicken is the traditional meal for the holidays, the restaurants are so busy on Christmas Day that reservations are required.
尽管大多数日本人都不是基督徒,但绝大多数人都图个好玩儿来庆祝圣诞节。仪式跟我们所熟知的稍有不同,这不足为奇。由于肯德基已经推广了“炸鸡是圣诞传统小吃”这一概念,节日当天肯德基餐馆业务太繁忙,顾客需要预订才能买到炸鸡。
 
Most of the holiday celebrations revolve around romantic love more than family relationships and bakeries even sell cakes for sweethearts.
节日庆祝活动大多以浪漫爱情为主题,而非家庭亲情。面包店甚至会给甜食控们提供蛋糕。
 
Children still have a Santa figure though, only in this case, he is a traditional Japanese god who is known for his generosity. Hoteiosho is a heavy-set Buddhist priest who carries a large sack of presents. Children know they have to be good because Hoteiosho has eyes in the back of his head.
但是孩子们还是有一个圣诞老人形象(Hoteiosho)的。他是传统的日本神,以慷慨著称。他的形象是一个身材魁梧的佛教徒,背着一大麻袋礼物。孩子们都知道自己得好好表现,因为圣诞老人后脑勺上长了眼睛。

Ukraine
乌克兰

While the story about German families hiding a pickle ornament on their tree is false, Ukrainians actually do hide a spider web ornament on their tree and it is supposed to be good luck for the person who finds it. The story behind the tradition is that an old widow had no money to decorate her tree and went to bed upset that her children would have an undecorated tree the next day. While she was asleep, a spider decorated the tree with a beautiful web. When the first light of day hit the webs, they turned to silver and gold and the widow and her children never went longing again.
尽管德国家庭在树上藏泡菜装饰物的故事是假的,但乌克兰人事实上的确会在树上藏一个蜘蛛网装饰物,据说这可以为找到它的人带来好运。这个传统背后的故事是,有一个老寡妇没有钱来装饰圣诞树,她沮丧地上床睡觉,因为她的孩子第二天只能得到一颗没有任何装饰的树。然而,当她醒来时,一只蜘蛛用一张漂亮的网装饰了圣诞树。当第一缕晨光照到网上时,网变成了银子和金子,老妇人和她的孩子从此再也不愁钱花了。

Norway
挪威

Norwegian folklore says that Christmas Eve is kind of like Halloween and brings about a number of evil spirits and witches. The brooms of the houses are hidden to keep them away from witches and men will often go outside and shoot their guns to ward off evil spirits.
挪威的民间故事说平安夜类似于万圣节,会招进一些邪恶的精灵和女巫。屋里的扫把都被藏起来了,来防止女巫们作恶。男士通常会出门放几枪,来祛除邪恶的精灵。
 
Pagan winter celebrations used to revolve around Thor’s pet goat and a person would arrive at the parties wearing a goatskin and carrying a goat head. He would eventually fake his death and then return to life. As Christianity started to take over the area, the goat was recast as a form of the devil and he was eventually banned.
无神论者的圣诞庆祝过去都是以托尔(Thor)的宠物羊和一位穿着羊皮、拿着羊头出现在聚会上的人为主题。这个人会诈死,然后复生。随着基督教在挪威的盛行,山羊被重新定义为一种邪恶的化身,这个人最终也被禁止在故事中流传。
 
Since then, the goat character was morphed into Julebukk, a “yule goat.” The new story of the goat involved him traveling from door to door where he would get gifts for keeping the evil spirits away. Nowadays, kids dress up and play the role of the Julebukk, where they get treats as they visit the houses.
自那以后,“山羊人”演变为“圣诞羊”(Julebukk)。在新故事中,他挨家挨户的拜访,并且会因祛除邪恶精灵而得到礼物。如今,孩子们会打扮得像“圣诞羊”,也会像他那样在拜访每家每户得到奖赏。


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