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双语:隔夜菜吃起走,它有助于健康

2015-04-21    来源:英语点津    【      美国外教 在线口语培训

双语:隔夜菜吃起走,它有助于健康

From congealed curry to cold pasta, you may think there’s nothing more dispiriting than a fridge full of leftovers.
凝固的咖喱、冰凉的意大利面,你会发现没有什么比打开冰箱后发现满是剩菜更令人沮丧啦。

But scientists are saying these dishes could have surprising health benefits, thanks to the chemical reactions that take place when food is left overnight.
但是科学家们却发现这些隔夜菜对健康有着惊人的益处,这主要得益于它们在过夜时所发生的化学反应。

From glowing skin to trimmer waists, we reveal why yesterday’s supper could be so good for you.
从光滑的皮肤到纤细的腰部,我们就可以知道隔夜饭为什么会对你的身体有好处。

COLD RICE TO STAY SLIM
冷饭保持身体苗条

Rice, when chilled overnight can contain up to 60 per cent fewer calories than when freshly cooked — potentially dropping from 130 calories per 100g to just 52. But you need to cook it in the right way, according to research presented to the American Chemical Society.
提交给美国化学学会的一项研究显示,大米被冷藏一夜后,它的热量比新鲜烹制时减少达六成,从130卡路里/100克直降到52卡路里/100克。不过,这需要你以正确的方法去烹调。

When the water is boiling, before the rice is added, pour a little coconut oil into the pan — about 3 percent of the weight of the rice you’re using. When cooked, leave in the fridge for 12 hours to hugely reduce the calories.
当水沸腾后,先向锅里倒入约为大米总重3%的椰子油,然后再倒入大米。煮熟后的大米再放入冰箱12小时会大大减少其所含热量。

This exciting phenomenon is down to the way starch in the rice changes when it is heated then cooled.
之所以会出现这种令人兴奋的现象,是由于大米中所含淀粉的形态在加热并冷藏后改变了。

When cooked rice is eaten, its starch is turned into the sugar — glucose — by the body and converted into fat if not burned off.
煮熟的大米被吃下去时,它所含的淀粉会转化为糖,确切的说是葡萄糖,如果它们没有被消耗,就会转化成脂肪。

However, when rice is chilled, its starch becomes what is called ‘resistant starch’, which the body cannot digest. This means it is not included in the calorie count.
然而,把米饭放入冰箱后,淀粉会转化成“抗酶解淀粉”,它无法被人体消化吸收,因此也就不会增加人体内的卡路里了。

The coconut oil stops the cold rice from sticking together, and also seems to produce more resistant starch in the rice, further reducing the number of calories.
椰子油能防止冷饭粘在一起,也会促使米饭中产生更多的抗酶解淀粉,从而进一步减少卡路里的数量。

Food scientist Dr Sam Christie explains: ‘The oil may be providing a barrier to the boiling water, slowing down the cooking of the rice. The result appears to be a less digestible form of rice containing more resistant starch.’
食品科学家山姆·克里斯蒂博士解释说:“油可以在沸腾的水中建立起一个屏障,减缓大米被蒸煮的程度,这也会产生更多不易消化的抗酶解淀粉。

These are, she warns, preliminary findings. However, this could be wonderful news for dieters.
她也警告说,这些都只是初步发现。然而,这仍然是节食者的好消息。

But don’t forget, reheating rice can lead to food poisoning.
但不要忘记,重复加热米饭可能导致食物中毒。

Dr Martin Goldberg, microbiology lecturer at Nottingham Trent University warns: ‘The bacterium Bacillus cereus, found on some rice, can survive the cooking process. As rice cools, the spores germinate and produce a neurotoxin that can make you horribly sick.
诺丁汉特伦特大学微生物学讲师马丁·哥德堡也警示:“有些米饭中含有细菌性蜡样芽胞杆菌,蒸煮过程可能无法将它们灭活。大米冷藏后,孢子发芽,产生一种令人严重不适的神经毒素。

‘If you wish to eat cold or reheated rice, cook small amounts and put straight into the fridge to cool quickly.’
“如果你想吃冷饭或重复加热的米饭,可以少量蒸煮,然后直接放入冰箱中迅速冷却。”

BEEF SOUP FOR SKIN
牛肉汤对皮肤好

Bone broth is a big nutritional trend. Low-calorie and rich-tasting, the soup also appears to be packed with ingredients to make your skin glow.
骨头汤已经成为营养圣品。热量低,味道丰富,汤中也可以加入各种东西,使肌肤焕发光泽。

As the name suggests, it contains the bones from meat — beef, lamb or chicken — cooked with water and ideally a little cider vinegar to help the process.
骨汤,顾名思义,来源于牛羊肉或鸡肉等肉类。和水一起烹调,如果能加一点苹果醋,那就更理想了。

Collagen from the bones breaks down into gelatin, which is easy to digest and excellent for the skin.
骨头中的骨胶原分解成凝胶,更加易于消化,而且对皮肤极好。

Recipes often suggest leaving the broth to simmer for hours.
肉汤通常需要数小时的小火慢炖。

‘Complex chemical reactions take place — and the more disintegrated the bones, (and, therefore, digestible) the massive protein molecules, which are the cement of the body, become,’ explains Dr Christie.
克里斯蒂博士解释说:“其中发生了许多复杂的化学反应——骨头分解的越彻底,大的蛋白分子就变得越易消化。而这些蛋白分子是人身体的基石。”

Minerals and nutrients such as calcium, magnesium and cartilage also become easy to digest. The broth is thought to have benefits for bones, teeth and joints and help hair and fingernails to grow.
矿物质以及钙、镁和软骨等营养物质也变得容易消化。肉汤据信对骨骼、牙齿和关节很好,而且能促进头发和指甲的生长。

‘Only re-heatany food once and ensure it’s very hot (over 60 degrees celsius) to kill any bacteria,’ says Dr Goldberg.
哥德堡博士说:“任何食物只能重复加热一次,而且要保证高温(60摄氏度以上)灭菌。”


VEG TO BEAT IBS
蔬菜防止肠易激综合征

We all know that cooking vegetables for longer removes vitamin C. But some believe that people with digestive problems, such as irritable bowel syndrome, ought to overcook vegetables containing insoluble fibre, such as onions and garlic, which can cause bloating. Reheating the next day could supposedly soften them further.
大家都知道,为了不破坏维生素C,烹饪蔬菜时不可煮太久。但一些人认为有消化问题的人,如患有肠易激综合征的人,应该将洋葱、大蒜等含不溶性纤维(容易引起腹胀)的蔬菜多煮一段时间。而隔夜菜再加热时正好可以进一步软化这些纤维。

Dr Christie is unconvinced. ‘Sorry, you aren’t going to make any real difference to the molecular structure,’ she says.
克里斯蒂博士对此表示不认同,她说:“对不起,你不会对其分子结构做出任何实质性的改变。”

This isn’t proven and I don’t recommend it. IBS suffers ought instead to find out which foods to avoid on specialist websites, such as ibsdiet.org.’
“这种说法尚未被证实,我不推荐。但那些患有肠易激综合征的患者应该关注专业网站,如ibsdiet.org,以避免食用某些食物。”

‘GOOD GUT’ POTATOES
土豆有助肠道健康

A 1992 UK study found cooked potatoes contained just 7 percent resistant starch (the indigestible type). But when cooled, it jumped to 13 percent.
英国1992年的一项研究发现,煮熟的土豆只含7%的抗酶解淀粉(不易于消化型),但当冷却后这一数字却骤升至13%。

Separate research has discovered this starch has the same benefits as dietary fibre, that protects against colon cancer, increases the feeling of fullness and might even reduce fat storage.
其他独立的研究已经发现,这种淀粉与膳食纤维有相同的好处,可以防止患结肠癌,增加饱腹感,甚至可能减少脂肪堆积。

‘When potatoes are cooled after heating, the starch molecules expand and crystallise,’ says Dr Christie. ‘Once swallowed, this resistant starch is treated like fibre by the digestive system.’
克里斯蒂博士说:“土豆加热冷却后,其中的淀粉分子扩大并结晶,人吃下去后,消化系统会像处理纤维一样消化这种抗酶解淀粉。

Another brilliant feature of resistant starch is that it can’t be broken down. This means it helps food move through the system, preventing constipation. And it doesn’t turn back into normal starch if the potatoes are then reheated.
抗酶解淀粉的另一个鲜明特点就是它的不可分解性。这意味着它有助于食物在消化系统里蠕动,预防便秘。当再次加热土豆,这种淀粉也不会回到正常的淀粉形式。

‘Raw potato would be ideal, but would be pretty unpalatable,’ says Dr Christie. ‘Cold cooked ones might be a happy compromise.’
”生马铃薯将是最理想的,但却很难吃。”克里斯蒂博士说。“冷却的熟马铃薯也许是个不错的折中选择。”

Make them into potato salad or simply sauté.
也可以把它们做成土豆沙拉或者加少许奶油煎熟。

HEART-FRIENDLY CURRY
咖喱有益心脏

Even the fieriest curry is gentler the next day. What’s more, it may be easier to digest and contain more nutrients as the meat tenderises overnight.
即使最火辣的咖喱放过一天后也会变得温和。更重要的是,它可能更容易消化、含有更多营养,因为肉在过夜后更加细嫩。

‘If you leave a meat curry for a few hours, the animal proteins degrade and become softer,’ says Dr Christie.
“如果你把咖喱肉放上几小时,动物蛋白就会降解,变得无比柔软。”克里斯蒂博士说。

‘This is firstly a good way of improving the texture of cheaper cuts of meat. Tenderising for long enough will create a fine melt-in-the-mouth dish.’
“首先,这是个提高便宜猪肉的质地的好方法。放置足够长的时间使其鲜嫩,口感也更佳。”

If you struggle to eat red meat — and suffer heartburn or bloating — this is a more digestible version. Theoretically it may also release more trace elements such as iron, which can help with anaemia.
如果你由于受烧心或腹胀的困扰,不想吃红肉,那么这就是个更易消化的选择。理论上,它也可能释放出更多的微量元素,如铁等,有助于缓解贫血。


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