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常考词的语法与用法251

2014-02-26    来源:网络    【      美国外教 在线口语培训

◆whatever,whoever,whichever,whenever,wherever & however

1. 它们都可用来引导状语从句(让步状语从句),其大意为“无论什么(是谁、哪一个、什么时候、什么地方、如何)”等,相当于英语中的 no matter what (who, which, when, where, how)。如:

Whatever [No matter what] you say, I believe you. 无论你说什么,我都相信你。

Whoever [No matter who] telephones, tell them I’m out. 不管是谁打电话,都说我出去了。

Whichever [No matter which] day you come, I’ll be pleased to see you. 无论你哪天来,我都欢迎。

Whenever [No matter when] you come, you are welcome. 你什么时候来,我们都欢迎。

We found the people friendly wherever [no matter where] we went. 无论我们走到哪里,我们都发现人们很友好。

However [No matter how] much he eats, he never gets fat. 无论他吃多少,他都不发胖。

注:有时从句谓语可用情态动词:

无论他在哪里,我都要找到他。

正:I’ll find him, wherever he is.

正:I’ll find him, wherever he may be.

无论发生什么事都要保持冷静。

正:Keep calm, whatever happens.

正:Keep calm, whatever may happen.

另外,whoever 的宾格也是 whoever, 而不是 whomever, 后者在现代英语已基本不用,有的词典已不收录此词。如:

Whoever you marry, make sure he can cook. 不管你跟谁结婚,

他一定要会做饭才行。

2. 除引导状语从句外,whatever, whoever, whichever等还可引导名词性从句(主语从句或宾语从句)。如:

He does whatever she asks him to do. 她要他做什么,他就做什么。

I will just say whatever comes into my mind. 我想到什么就说什么。

Whoever breaks the rules will be punished. 谁违反这些规则都将受到处罚。

I’ll give the ticket to whoever wants it. 请想要这票,我就把它给谁。

Whichever team gains the most points wins. 哪个队得分最多,哪个队就赢。

Whichever of us gets home first starts cooking. 我们当中无论哪个先到家,哪个就先开始做饭。

3. 有时用于加强语气,含有“究竟”、“到底”之义。如:

Whatever [What ever] do you mean? 你到底是什么意思?

Whenever [When ever] did you find time to do it? 你什么时候有空做这事?

Wherever [Where ever] can the children be? 孩子们究竟会在哪里呢?

Whoever [Who ever] told you that? 到底是谁告诉你的呢?

Whichever [Which ever] did you choose? 你到底选了哪个?

However [How ever] did you escape? 你到底是怎样逃出来的?

◆which & that pron.

两者都可用作关系代词引导定语从句,指物时有时可互换。如:

Did you see the letter that [which] came today? 你看到今天来的那封信了吗?

This is the book which [that] I told you about. 这就是我曾跟你谈起过的那本书。

但要注意,下列情况一般不宜换用:

1. 通常只用 which 的场合:

(1) 引导非限制性定语从句时:

I lost my watch, which is not found yet. 我把表丢了,到现在还没有找到。

He changed his mind again, which made us all angry. 他又改变了主意,这使我们大家很生气。

(2) 直接放在介词后作宾语时:

This is the book of which I was speaking. 这本书就是我跟你们提到过的那本书。

The tool with which he is working is called a hammer. 他干活用的那个工具叫做锤子。

2. 通常要用 that 的场合(偶尔也可能用 which, 但较少见):

(1) 当先行词是下列不定代词或被它们修饰时:much, little, none, all, few, every(thing),any(thing),no(thing)等。如:

All that glitters is not gold. 发光的不一定都是金子。

I never took anything that didn’t belong to me. 我从来不拿不属于我的东西。

All [Everything] that can be done must be done. 凡能做的事都必须做。

(2) 当先行词有the very, the only, the same 等修饰时。如:

Those are the very words that he used. 那是他的原话。

This is the only example that I know. 我知道的例子只有这一个。

(3) 当先行词有形容词最高级或序数词(包括last, next等)等修饰时。如:

This is the most interesting story that I’ve ever read. 这是我所读过的最有趣的故事。

The first thing that we should do is to work out a plan. 我们应该做的第一件事是订个计划。

(4) 当关系代词在定语从句中用作表语时。如:

China is not the country (that) it was. 中国已不是过去的中国了。

(5) 当先行词是一个既指人又指物的并列词组时。如:

The train ran over a boy and his dog that were justcrossing the track. 火车压死了正穿越轨道的一个男孩和他的狗。

(6) 当要避免重复时。如:

Which is the car that overtook us? 超过我们的是哪辆车?



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