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揭秘7个我们听惯了的谎言

2014-08-18    来源:英语点津    【      美国外教 在线口语培训
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Seven well known facts that actually aren't true

“真相只有一个!”这句来自日本动漫《名侦探柯南》的名言几乎无人不晓。然而,随着时间流逝,许多真相由于历史久远而变得扭曲,或者在人们的口口相传中面目全非。以下是近年来在全球范围内流传甚广的七大“假真相”。

1. Penguins Mate for Life
During the mid-2000s, films like "Happy Feet" made penguins all the rage, and young lovers went around spouting off facts like "penguins mate for life." While the idea is sweet, it's not exactly true.
Penguins usually stick with their partners through the mating season, but when it's time to mate again, they choose whomever is convenient, not necessarily their old flame.

2. Vincent Van Gogh Cut Off His Entire Ear
This is not entirely true. It was not his entire ear - just the tip of the lobe - and some say he didn't even do it. Van Gogh lived with artist Paul Gauguin, who had quite a violent temper, and many believe Gauguin actually did the cutting.
Either way, Van Gogh did reportedly send the tip to a prostitute.

3. Napoleon Bonaparte was Short
Everyone knows Napoleon Bonaparte was a tiny man - after all, his nickname was "le Petit Corporal." His reputation for being short even inspired the phenomenon known as the "Napoleon complex."
In reality, Napoleon stood around 5 feet and 7 inches tall, which was very average back in the day. Many believe his nickname was meant as a term of endearment, not a reference to his height.


4. Ben Franklin Preferred a Turkey to a Bald Eagle
The bald eagle is certainly a well-known representation of America, but legend has it that if Ben Franklin had his way, a turkey would have been much better. In reality, Franklin wrote a letter to his daughter mocking the eagle symbol used in a seal by the Society of the Cincinnati, a private military group.
He said it looked like a turkey and may as well be one.

5. You Have Five Senses
If you remember learning about the senses in elementary school, you know humans possess five: sight, smell, hearing, touch, and taste. Most scientists agree, however, that you have more like 10-20 senses, including pain, hunger, thirst, temperature, and more.

6. George Washington had Wooden Teeth
George Washington is known for three things: being the first president, chopping down a cherry tree, and having wooden teeth. At least one of these is certainly not true. While Washington did have bad teeth, his dentures were not wooden.

7. Einstein was a Bad Student
If you ever made bad grades and pulled the old "Albert Einstein used to make bad grades" card with your parents or teachers, you are lucky you got away with it. In reality, Einstein was at the top of his class and mastered calculus when he was barely a teenager.
The reputation he developed for being a bad student had more to do with his behavior. He liked to talk back to his teachers.

1. 企鹅伴侣厮守终生?
几年前,《快乐的大脚》等多部以企鹅为题材的电影热映,令这种憨态可掬的可爱动物风靡全球。与此同时,“企鹅伴侣厮守终生”的说法也在年轻人尤其是小情侣间流传开来。尽管这个说法很动听,但它并不是事实。
目前大约有18个企鹅物种,它们的交配习性在本质上相似。交配季期间,它们会与选定的伴侣厮守在一起。但当下一个交配季来临时,它们会再次选择合适的配偶,不论对方是不是自己的“旧爱”。
对于筑巢的企鹅来说,交配季时还会上演肥皂剧戏码。例如阿德利公企鹅会筑好巢穴接受母企鹅检查,如果公企鹅之前的配偶来到了,“旧爱”可能会将“新欢”赶出巢穴。

2. 梵高割下整只耳朵?
据史料记载,荷兰著名画家文森特•梵高曾割掉耳朵,后在法国瓦兹河饮弹自杀。但需要澄清的是,梵高割掉的不是整只耳朵,而是一部分耳垂。
至于梵高割耳事件,有几个不同的版本。有人说他是割下耳朵洗净放在信封里,送给一名妓女;有人说他是在得知自己经济和情感的支柱——弟弟——即将结婚的消息后,精神崩溃割掉耳朵;还有人认为是梵高与好友、同样赫赫有名的画家高更争执时,被高更用剑砍掉了耳朵。

3. 拿破仑是个矮子?
在心理学上有一个概念,被称为“拿破仑情结”,也叫作“矮个子症候群”。简单来说,就是矮个子比高个子更有暴力倾向。不难看出,身材矮小已成为贴在拿破仑身上最醒目的标签之一。
人们普遍认为拿破仑是个矮子,这一看法源于他临终时测得的身高为5英尺2英寸(约合1.57米),但这是法国旧度量制度测量的结果,按照现在的单位换算,拿破仑的身高接近5英尺7英寸(约合1.7米),在他所处的年代这属于平均身高。
那么,拿破仑为何被称作“小士兵”(Le Petit Caporel)?这是对他的爱称,而非取笑。

4. 富兰克林建议选火鸡当美国国鸟?
本杰明•富兰克林发明了避雷针,是一名杰出的发明家,也是美国著名政治家。有历史故事称,富兰克林不满意白头鹰作为美国国鸟,他建议选用火鸡。
这其实是误读。在富兰克林写给女儿的一封信中,他讥讽一个私人军事组织将白头鹰用于印章,但他嘲笑的是印章上的白头鹰看起来像火鸡,而不是说火鸡更适合做美国国鸟。

5. 人只有五种感觉?
古希腊哲学家亚里士多德认为,人有五种感觉:视觉、听觉、触觉、嗅觉和味觉。直至今日,这种说法仍得到主流科学家们的认同,因为这五种感觉能被检测出来。
人还有其他的感觉吗?当然,疼痛、饥饿、口渴、冷热等等都是人的感觉,但不是通过前面五个“官”感知,而是地地道道、没有清晰位置或表现的感觉,这些感觉多达10至20种。

6. 乔治•华盛顿有一口木质假牙?
提起乔治•华盛顿,绝大多数人会马上联想到三件事:他是美国首任总统,他小时候砍倒了一棵樱桃树以及他有一口木质假牙。其中,至少有一件事不是真的,虽然华盛顿的牙口确实不好,但他的假牙不是木头做的。
曾 任美国加州大学洛杉矶牙科学院院长的里德尔•索格内斯德深入研究了华盛顿的假牙。他宣称,华盛顿配过多副假牙,有铅制的、象牙的,也有使用人的、牛的以及 其他动物的牙齿,但没有当时流行的木质假牙。而且,华盛顿的牙齿并不是全部脱落,到总统就职典礼时,除假牙外,他还有一颗真牙能够承担咀嚼工作。

7. 爱因斯坦学习成绩差?
经常有学生考砸了,就拿出“爱因斯坦小时候学习成绩也不好”的说辞为自己辩解。但事实上,爱因斯坦上学时一直在班级里成绩拔尖,他十几岁时就掌握了微积分。
至于爱因斯坦为何会落下一个“坏学生”的名声,这与他的言行有关。爱因斯坦成绩好,但并不循规蹈矩、对老师的话言听计从,他遇事喜欢自己思考、提出自己的见解,也因此经常顶撞老师。



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