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紧跟两会:各类“会”的英文表达

2016-03-11    来源:中央编译局翻译服务部    【      美国外教 在线口语培训

各类“会”的英文表达

 
【编者按】在英文中,表示“会议”、“集会”的单词有很多。它们之间有些可以通用,有些只能用于特定场合。今儿小编就以“两会”的英文表达为例,给大家总结一下表示各类 “会议”的单词用法。
 
先说“两会”。“两会”指中华人民共和国全国人民代表大会和中国人民政治协商会议。外国主流媒体在报道时,通常会简要的介绍,比如BBC的报道:“Dubbed the two sessions, the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC中国人民政治协商会议), which is the country's top national advisory body, opened on Tuesday, and the meeting of the National People's Congress (NPC全国人民代表大会), the top legislative body, will begin on Thursday. The sessions, attended by thousands of officials and business leaders, will discuss various issues, including the economic reforms process and this year's targets”。
 
由于“两会”是每年召开,每五年又称为一届,所以国内在对外宣传工作上更加细致,通常具体到X届X次会议,比如今年的“两会”就是“the fourth session of the 12th National People's Congress” (十二届全国人大四次会议)和“the fourth session of the 12th Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference”(全国政协十二届四次会议)。
 
除了上面说到的session, conference, congress之外,还有很多表示“会”的单词,比如meeting, summit, gathering, assembly, convention, caucus等等。
 
下面小编就选用《牛津词典》为参考,给大家分别介绍这些单词的用法。
 
Meeting: an occasion when people come together to discuss or decide sth.
 
meeting是最常用于表达“会议”的单词,它泛指各种有目的的集会,比如 mass meeting(群众大会),farewell meeting(欢送会),class meeting(班会)等等。由于它过于普通,在表示大规模正式会议的场合就很少使用。此外,the meeting(单数形式)还统指参会人员。
 
Conference: a large official meeting, usually lasting for a few days, at which people with the same work or interests come together to discuss their views.
 
conference通常指持续数日的大型正式会议,这类会议出席的代表通常是受邀、协商产生或有关单位委派的,会议的决议往往不具有约束力。conference还指从事相同职业或抱有相同目标的人们聚在一起讨论的会议,比如学术研讨会。此外,和会议相关的“周边词”,也常用conference,比如conference hall (新闻大厅),press conference (新闻发布会)等。
 
Congress: a formal meeting or series of meetings for discussion between delegates, especially those from a political party, trade union, or from within a particular sphere of activity; a national legislative body, especially that of the US; used in the names of political parties in some countries.
 
congress表“会议”之意时,一般表示代表大会。与会人员多是政党、工会或特定领域的代表,如International Congress of Mathematicians(ICM国际数学家大会)。Congress还指(美国及其他一些国家的)国会、议会。此外,Congress还用于表示(某些国家的政党名称),通常翻译为“国民大会”。如果大家仔细阅读小编上面提到的BBC报道,就会发现 “the meeting of the National People's Congress”这句话,这里的“meeting”和“Congress”并非赘述,而是因Congress本身表示了“人民大会”之意。此外,小编要提醒大家,在后两个用法中,Congress是要大写的!
 
Session: a formal meeting or series of meetings of a court, parliament, etc.; a period of time when such meetings are held.
 
session 的词意有很多,跟“会”相关时,主要指(法庭的)开庭期和(议会的)会期。比如,常用的in session就表示开庭中或者开会中。
 
Summit: an official meeting or series of meetings between the leaders of two or more governments at which they discuss important matters.
 
summit 取其本意翻译为“峰会”,指政府间的首脑会议,涉及的多是国际性的重要议题,比如G20峰会。
 
Gathering/ Assembly: a meeting of people for a particular purpose.
 
gathering和assembly都有“聚集”、“聚会”的意思。assembly 比gathering更正式。gathering 可以指一般的聚会或指为讨论共同兴趣而进行的集体活动,如family gathering(家庭聚会)。assembly指人们聚集在一起讨论其认为是很重要的问题,尤其是当人们认为该问题没有被政府或者权威机构妥善处理的时候,比如常见的an assembly of labourers(劳动者集会)。
 
Convention: a conference, especially for the members of a profession, political party, fan club or other association.
 
convention 指(某职业、政党等成员参与的)大会,如the Democratic Party Convention (民主党大会)。
 
Caucus (especially NAmE): a meeting of the members or leaders of a political party to choose candidates or to decide policy; the members or leaders of a political party as a group.
 
caucus 常用于北美英文中,一般指为挑选候选人或制定政策而召开的政党会议。此外,大写的Caucus也表示政党的全体成员或领导班子,如the Congressional Black Caucus(美国国会提倡黑人民权的核心小组)。
 
看完了这么多跟“会”相关的解释,大家是不是有点懵。小编觉得,大多数情况下,这些单词都可以用meeting代替,只要抓重点记住几个不常见的就可以了,最后再给大家总结一下常见的搭配。
 
an annual meeting/ conference/ session/ summit/ gathering/ assembly/ convention
 
a public meeting/gathering/ assembly/ session
 
a three-day conference/ session/ summit/ convention
 
a bilateral/ multilateral meeting/ session/ summit/ convention
 
an illegal meeting/ gathering/ assembly
 
to hold a meeting/ a conference/ a session/ a summit/ a gathering/ an assembly/ a convention/ a caucus
 
to host a meeting/ a conference/ summit/ gathering/ convention
 
to call a meeting/ a conference/ a session/ a summit/ an assembly/ a caucus
 
to attend a meeting/ a conference/ a session/ a summit/ a gathering/ an assembly/ a convention
 
to chair a meeting/ a conference/ a session/ a summit/ an assembly
 
to address a meeting/ a conference/ a session/ a gathering/ an assembly/ a convention
 
a meeting/ conference/ session/ summit/ gathering/ convention takes place
 
delegates to a conference/ a session/ a summit/ an assembly/ a convention


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