用户名: 密码: 验证码:    注册 | 忘记密码?
首页|听力资源|每日听力|网络电台|在线词典|听力论坛|下载频道|部落家园|在线背单词|双语阅读|在线听写|普特网校
您的位置:主页 > 英语能力 > 翻译 > 口译 > 练习材料 > 文化 >

历史文化:二战犹太难民的中国记忆-何凤山

2015-12-11    来源:综合整理    【      美国外教 在线口语培训

二战犹太难民的中国记忆-何凤山

【何凤山简介】

何凤山,字久经。

二战期间,任中国驻维也纳总领事的何凤山向数千犹太人发放了前往上海的签证,使他们免遭纳粹的杀害,被称为“中国的辛德勒”。

何凤山上任时,欧洲上空已战云密布,纳粹德国肆虐横行,掀起反犹恶浪。1938年3月,德国吞并了奥地利。不久,希特勒命各国驻奥使馆,一律改为总领事馆。5月,南京国民政府委任原使馆代办何凤山为总领事。

纳粹分子大肆煽动反犹狂潮,犹太店铺被捣毁,大批犹太人送入集中营。面对灭顶之灾,欧洲犹太人决计出走,希望借此躲避纳粹魔爪。但是,取得一张出国签证难若登天。

对奥地利的犹太人来说,离开就是生存,不能离开就意味着死亡。

国际形势风云突变,被推到历史风口浪尖、富有同情心的中国外交官何凤山不忍看着犹太人在维也纳等死,向走投无路的奥地利犹太人伸出了援手,勇敢地打开了向犹太人发放签证之门。

Related News:

Austria has presented a memorial plaque to Shanghai and its residents, in gratitude for the help given to Jews fleeing persecution during the Second World War. In the late 1930s, about 2,000 Jews fled Austria and found shelter in Shanghai. And the key person who made this happen was the then Chinese Consul General to Vienna, Ho Fengshan.

The world remembers Oscar Schindler for saving over a thousand Jews in World War Two. But there's a lesser-known name remembered for the same reason: Ho Fengshan.

Ho was appointed consul general of China to Vienna soon after Austria was annexed by Germany in 1938. At the end of that year, Nazi-led mob violence took place against Jews. More than 30,000 Jews were detained in the Concentration Camp.

For them, leaving is the only way to survive.

The United States required its own citizens to provide guarantee for Jewish refugees before a visa could be issued. And another 32 countries simply outright rejected them.

The Marcus family knocked on every door from March to June, but failed.

With little hope left, Lotte's father tried his last luck at the Chinese Consulate General. And what was a wild grasp saved the whole family.

With the visa in hand, the Marcus' finally got onboard a ship headed for Shanghai - tens of thousands of miles away.

Shanghai was in fact a free port city back then, as the Chinese government lost control over the city during the war. No Visa was needed to get on shore. Then why did the consul-general issue one?

"My father fashioned an ingenious way to use the entry visa as a means of exit or escape," said Ho Manli, Ho Fengshan's daughter.

 It was proved effective by many Jewish families.

As there was no existing procedure to obtain a Chinese visa, a number of Jews rushed there for their "life ticket".

Ho's actions became the key force in putting Shanghai on the map for Jewish refugees as a safe haven.

But the diplomat came under firing from both the Nazi government and the Chinese government, which ordered a stop to his visa issuing.

"China-Germany relations were bad back then. The Chinese government was trying to isolate Japan and gain help from other countries. So it didn't want to worsen ties with Germany," said Wang Jian, vice director of Shanghai Center of Jewish Studies.

However, Ho stuck to his cause. He was eventually stripped of his post and sent back to China in 1939.

The number of visas issued between 1938 and 1939 by Ho Feng Shan is unknown. But based on the only surviving documentation, it's possible the Chinese Consulate in Vienna issued an average of 500 visas a month to Jews in the nearly two years after the annexation.

Ho died in 1997 at the age of 97. Though he was the reason many lived to tell the tale, he never met any of them again in his lifetime.

中文文稿:百度百科

英语文稿及视频:CNTV



顶一下
(2)
100%
踩一下
(0)
0%
手机上普特 m.putclub.com 手机上普特
[责任编辑:katherine]
------分隔线----------------------------
相关文章列表
发表评论 查看所有评论
请自觉遵守互联网政策法规,严禁发布色情、暴力、反动的言论。
评价:
表情:
用户名: 密码: 验证码:
  • 推荐文章
  • 资料下载
  • 讲座录音
普特英语手机网站
用手机浏览器输入m.putclub.com进入普特手机网站学习
查看更多手机学习APP>>