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散文欣赏:培根《论嫉妒》

2011-09-28    来源:网络    【      美国外教 在线口语培训

Of Envy
论嫉妒

There be none of the affections, which have been noted to fascinate or bewitch, but love and envy. They both have vehement wishes; they frame themselves readily into imaginations and suggestions; and they come easily into the eye, especially upon the present of the objects; which are the points that conduce to fascination, if any such thing there be. We see likewise, the Scripture calleth envy an evil eye; and the astrologers, call the evil influences of the stars, evil aspects; so that still there seemeth to be acknowledged, in the act of envy, an ejaculation or irradiation of the eye. Nay, some have been so curious, as to note, that the times when the stroke or percussion of an envious eye doth most hurt, are when the party envied is beheld in glory or triumph; for that sets an edge upon envy: and besides, at such times the spirits of the person envied, do come forth most into the outward parts, and so meet the blow.
在人的各种情欲之中,没有一种可以看出是迷人或魔人的——除了恋爱与嫉妒。这两者都有很强烈的愿望,它们很容易造出意象和观念;并且很容易进入眼中,尤其是当对象在场的时候,这些都是导致蛊惑之处——假设有蛊惑这种事的话。类此,我们看见《圣经》中把嫉妒叫做“凶眼”;而占星家把星宿底恶影响叫做“恶容”;所以好象总有人承认嫉妒的行为中是有一种眼力底投射或放光似的。不但如此,还有些人好奇之甚,竟说嫉妒底眼目其打击伤人最烈的时候是那受嫉的人正在显耀荣华,受人注视的时候;因为这种情形使嫉妒之心更为锐利也。再者,在这种时候,那受嫉的人底精神多出现于外表上,因而他就受到那种打击了。


But leaving these curiosities (though not unworthy to be thought on, in fit place), we will handle, what persons are apt to envy others; what persons are most subject to be envied themselves; and what is the difference between public and private envy.
我们现在先不理这些奥妙之点(虽然在适当之处它们并非不值得思索的),且谈何种人最易嫉人;何种人最易受嫉;以及公妒与私妒有何分别。


A man that hath no virtue in himself, ever envieth virtue in others. For men's minds, will either feed upon their own good, or upon others' evil; and who wanteth the one, will prey upon the other; and whoso is out of hope, to attain to another's virtue, will seek to come at even hand, by depressing another's fortune.
无德之人常嫉他人之有德。因为人底心思若不以自己底好处为食,就要以他人底坏处为食的;并且缺乏这二者之一的人一定是要猎取其二的。又任何人若是没有达到他人底美德的希望,他一定要设法压抑这另一人底幸福以求与之得平的。


A man that is busy, and inquisitive, is commonly envious. For to know much of other men's matters, cannot be because all that ado may concern his own estate; therefore it must needs be, that he taketh a kind of play-pleasure, in looking upon the fortunes of others. Neither can he, that mindeth but his own business, find much matter for envy. For envy is a gadding passion, and walketh the streets, and doth not keep home: Non est curiosus, quin idem sit
malevolus.
多事好问之人每善嫉。因为所以要知道如许关于他人之事的原因决不会是因为这许多劳碌是有关于自己底利害的;因此,其原由一定是因为他在观察别人底祸福上得到一种观剧式的乐趣了。并且一个专务己业的人也不会找着许多嫉妒底缘由来的。因为嫉妒是一种游荡的情欲,在大街上徘徊而不肯居家,所谓“未有好管闲事而不心怀恶意者也”。


Men of noble birth, are noted to be envious towards new men, when they rise. For the distance is altered, and it is like a deceit of the eye, that when others come on, they think themselves, go back.
贵族中人对新进之人当其腾达之时常露嫉妒之情。因为两者之间的距离改变了;好象一种视觉上的错觉一样,别人往前来而自己以为自身是后退了。


Deformed persons, and eunuchs, and old men, and bastards, are envious. For he that cannot possibly mend his own case, will do what he can, to impair another's; except these defects light upon a very brave, and heroical nature, which thinketh to make his natural wants part of his honor; in that it should be said, that an eunuch, or a lame man, did such great matters; affecting the honorof a miracle; as it was in Narses the eunuch, and Agesilaus and Tamberlanes, that were lame men.
残疾之人、宦官、老人与私生子均善妒。因为无法补救自己底情形的人一定要竭力损坏别人底情形的,除非这些缺陷落在一种甚为勇敢和伟大的天性上,那种天性是要以他底天生的缺陷为其荣耀之一部的;他们要人家说一个宦官或一个跛子竟作了这样的大事;这种事情底荣耀直有如一件奇迹底荣耀了;例如宦官拿尔西斯和跛人阿盖西劳斯及帖木儿是也。



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