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双语:想减肥?那就改变生活环境吧

2015-02-06    来源:forbes.com    【      美国外教 在线口语培训

双语:想减肥?那就改变生活环境吧

If You Want To Lose Weight, Hack Your Living Environment Like Skinny People

双语阅读:

One of the most useful pieces of knowledge to come from behavioral science of the past few years is this: to change ourselves, we’re wise to change our environments. Much of the self-improvement industry is focused on ways to cattle prod our willpower into healthier habits. Behavioral psychologists, on the other hand, have conducted a wealth of research showing that skillful hacks to our homes and offices can produce results that tweaks to willpower, however forceful, rarely make stick.
过去几年中,我们从行为科学中学到的最有用的知识可能就是:想要改变我们自己,首先改变我们所处的环境是一个明智的选择。大部分致力于提升自己的行业都专注于督促我们的意志力,以养成更为健康的习惯。而另一方面,行为心理学家进行的大量研究表明,对我们的家和办公室进行有技巧的改动能够产生积极的效果:改变我们的意志力——无论我们的意志力有多强,它也很少能成为督促我们前进的动力。

One of the leading behavioral scientists in this camp is Brian Wansink, director of the Cornell University Food and Brand Lab and author of the book “Slim by Design: Mindless Eating Solutions for Everyday Life”.  Wansink and his team have been conducting studies on the behavioral differences between healthy and unhealthy people – specifically, what’s different about their living environments that accounts for differences in their waistlines. In a recent review of his research in New Scientist magazine, he says,
这一领域中有一位走在前沿的行为科学家:布莱恩·万辛克(Brian Wansink),他是康奈尔大学食品及品牌研究室主任,著有《设计苗条:每日无意识饮食解决方案》(Slim by Design: Mindless Eating Solutions for Everyday Life)一书。万辛克和他的团队一直在就健康和不健康人群的行为差异展开研究——具体来说,就是造成这两个人群腰围差异的生活环境上的差异。最近,万辛克在其发表于《新科学家》(New Scientist)杂志的一篇研究回顾文章中表示:

My latest research has found subtle ways to tweak our homes, workplaces, schools, restaurant dining and grocery shopping so we mindlessly eat less instead of more.”
“我最近的研究发现,对我们的家、工作场所、学校、餐厅就餐和食品日用品购物等做一些微细的调整,就能让我们无意识地吃得更少,而不是更多。”

By “mindlessly eat”, Wansink means that we can subtly alter elements of our environments to automatically eat in ways that result in losing weight and generally being healthier.
这里的“无意识地吃”指的是,我们可以小小地改变我们所处环境中的元素,便可以自动切换到能够减去体重、变得更健康的模式。

In one study, he and his team wanted to find out if the color of a dinner plate would influence the number of calories ingested in a meal. Sixty people were invited to a free pasta lunch and given either a red plate or a white plate. Half the people were directed to the marinara pasta buffet (red sauce); half to the Alfredo pasta buffet (white sauce). The researchers then sneakily weighed the plates of each person after they served themselves, and found that those whose plate color matched the pasta color dished up about 18 percent more calories than those whose plates contrasted with the colors of the food.
在一项研究中,万辛克和他的团队想要弄明白,餐盘的颜色是否会影响一顿饭中吸收的卡路里。他们邀请了60个人免费享用意大利面,装食物的盘子分为红白两色。有一半人被分配享用杂菜意大利面自助餐(红色酱汁),另一半则为阿尔弗雷多意大利面自助餐(白色酱汁)。在他们用餐完毕后,研究人员偷偷对餐盘进行了称重,并发现,餐盘颜色和意大利面颜色相同的人所消耗的卡路里比餐盘颜色和实物颜色不同的人多出了18%。

This is the sort of simple and deceptively powerful hack that we can employ in our homes to change how we eat. Are you trying to cut down on how much starchy (white) foods you and your family members shovel in? Buy a set of dark dinner plates and let the hack roll.
这就是我们可以运用于家庭之中、来改变我们饮食方式的那种简单的、带有“欺骗”性质的有用改变。你是否在尝试减少你和你家人盛入餐盘中的(白色)淀粉类食物?不妨买一套深色晚餐盘吧,让改变悄然开始。

Here’s another that Wansink discusses: take a good look at your kitchen counters and survey how many boxes and bags of snacks you have lined up. His team found that people living in homes with open bags of potato chips and boxes of cereal on counters weighed significantly more than their neighbors who kept these foods out of sight. This result holds true even if the amount of snacks in the homes is roughly the same. It all comes down to placement – if the goodies are in sight, you’ll be tempted to eat more of them, and, according to Wansink’s research, you’ll likely do just that.
万辛克还提到另一点:好好看一看你家的厨房台面,数一数你囤积的零食数量。他的团队发现,如果家中台面上摆放着开了封的薯片和麦片的话,你的体重将比那些将食物放在看不见地方的邻居要重得多。即便是这两个家中的零食数量差不多,结果也还是如此。摆放位置相当关键——如果食物在肉眼可及的范围内,你就会忍不住去多吃,而根据万辛克的研究结果,你很可能会这样做。

“If you’re looking to shed some weight, putting away the snacks and cereal is no guarantee things will change overnight, but it might just tilt the scales in the right direction,” he writes.
“如果你想要减去一些体重,把零食和麦片藏起来并不能保证奇迹在一夜之间发生,但这是朝着正确的方向在前进。”万辛克在上述文章中如是写道。

A similar principle applies to the placement of food at meals. His team found that families who place dinner items on a stove or counter, versus placing them on the dinner table, ate about 19 percent less per meal. The simple act of making people get up to serve themselves instead of having the food in arms-reach reduces how much goes into the mouth.
吃饭时食物的摆放位置也适用同样的原则。万辛克的研究团队发现,将晚餐菜品放在炉子或厨房台面上的家庭,与将菜品放在餐桌上的家庭相比,每顿饭会少吃19%。和把饭菜放在触手可及地方相比,仅仅起身自己盛饭盛菜这个简单的举动就能减少进入口中的食物量。

This hack can work the other way for things that we’d like to eat more of, like salads and vegetable dishes. Placing those items on the table will automatically encourage more “mindless eating” of healthy calories.
这种方法也可以运用在我们想要多吃的食物上,比如色拉和蔬菜。将这些食物摆放在餐桌上会自动产生鼓励你摄入健康卡路里的更多“无意识进食”。

Wansink’s research extends to going out to eat as well. No matter how skillfully we manage our home environments, going to restaurants just a couple of times a week can result in eating excessively and undoing our gains. The research in this area is still in the works, but his team has already uncovered some interesting findings. According to Wansink: “This is preliminary, but so far it looks like people ordered healthier foods if they sat by a window or in a well-lit part of the restaurant.”
万辛克还进一步对外出就餐进行了研究。无论我们如何有技巧地管理我们家中的环境,每周到餐厅吃上几顿饭就会导致你吃得过多,抵消我们之前的努力。对这一方面的研究仍在进行之中,不过万辛克的团队已经有一些有趣的发现。他表示:“现在研究还处于初步阶段,不过目前来看,当坐在窗边或是餐厅中光线比较好的位置时,人们更容易点一些健康的食物。”

Other findings include: people sitting the farthest away from the front of the restaurant are 73 percent less likely to order a salad and more likely to order dessert. The closer you sit to a TV screen, the more likely you are to order fried foods. And if you sit within a couple of tables from a bar, you’ll drink an average of three more beers or glasses of booze than people just one table further away.
其他发现包括:坐在远离餐厅正门位置的人,点色拉的几率要低73%,他们更可能点甜点。而你坐得离电视屏幕更近的话,就更有可能点油炸食品。如果你和吧台之间距离较近,那么你会比那些和吧台之间比你多隔着一张桌子的人平均多喝三杯啤酒或一杯烈酒。

All of this may sound surprising, or even offensive, since we like to think of ourselves as immune to intangibles. But if there’s anything that behavioral science has taught us it’s that we are enormously susceptible to environmental influences, much more than we realize. From morning until night, we are affected by imperceptibles at home, at work, and virtually anywhere else we go. What Wansink’s research tells us is that the more we understand  how we’re influenced, the more we can subtly change elements of our lives to change the outcomes.
所有这一切听起来都令人吃惊,甚至有些讨厌,因为我们总倾向于认为自己对无形的东西是免疫的。不过,如果说行为科学教会了我们什么的话,那就是,我们极易受环境的影响,程度超出我们所意识到的。从早晨到晚上,我们被家里、公司里和我们所前往的任何一个地方那些不易察觉的东西所影响着。万辛克的研究告诉我们,我们越多地了解自己是如何被影响的,就越能通过微妙地改变生活中的元素来改变结果。

If you are frustrated by wrestling with willpower, I recommend reading more about Wansink’s research and putting a few environmental hacks into effect. Think of it as working smarter instead of harder.
如果你正为如何与意志力做斗争所困扰着,我建议你多阅读一些万辛克的调查论文,并亲身实践一些环境上的微小改变。不妨把它看作是以一种更聪明的方式,而不是更努力地去和意志力作斗争。

tweak vt. 扭;用力拉;开足马力

buffet n. 自助餐;小卖部;打击;猛烈冲击

starchy adj. 含淀粉的;浆糊状的;刻板的

cereal n. 谷类,谷物;谷类食品

preliminary adj. 初步的;开始的;预备的

susceptible adj. 易受影响的;易感动的;容许…的

(forbes.com)



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