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译文精选:读书疗法 能把自己读开心吗?

2015-02-26    来源:yeeyan.org    【      美国外教 在线口语培训

 

读书疗法 能把自己读开心吗?
Can you read yourself happy?

【译文精选】

In a new column for BBC Culture, Hephzibah Anderson explains that it’s not just self-help books that can improve our well-being – fiction can cure us too.
BBC 文化的新专栏中,赫齐巴·安德森说明了不仅仅是心理自助类读物可以增强我们的幸福感,小说同样对我们有治愈效果。

For authors of self-help guides, no human problem is too great or too small. Want to become fitter, richer or happier in 2015? There are books for it – shelves upon shelves of them. Hoping for increased efficiency, decisiveness and creativity in the months ahead? There are titles for that too.
对于自助指南类书籍的作者来说,人们所面临的问题都谈不上太大,也不算太小。2015年你想更健康,更富有,还是更快乐?就有书是写这个的——而且是一书架一书架的书。如果你寄希望于在接下来的几个月里提升效率、勇于决断或善于创造,也有些写这方面的文章。

As we knuckle down to our New Year’s resolutions, we’ll turn in droves to self-help books, hoping to find our own best selves in their pages. But a book needn’t hector or lecture to leave its imprint. The truth is that all good literature changes us, and a growing body of research suggests you might do better browsing through fiction for support in battling life’s challenges. Think of it less as self-help than ‘shelf help’.
新年愿望一经付诸实践,我们就加入自助类图书读者的行列,企图在那些书中寻找最好的自我。但一本书不需要靠威吓或教训来给人留下深刻印象。事实上,所有的好的文学作品都改变了我们,越来越多的研究表明,当人们对抗生活的挑战时,读小说可以让人做得更好。这么看,与其说是“自助”(self-help)到不如说是“架助”(shelf help)了。

Reading has been proven to sharpen analytical thinking, enabling us to better discern patterns – a handy tool when it comes to the often  baffling behaviour of ourselves and others. But fiction in particular can make you more socially able and empathetic. Last year, the Journal of Applied Social Psychology published a paper showing how reading Harry Potter made young people in the UK and Italy more positively disposed towards stigmatised minorities such as refugees. And in 2013, psychologists at the New School for Social Research found that literary fiction enhanced people’s ability to register and read others’ emotions.
阅读已被证明能够锻炼分析思维,使我们拥有更好的理解模式,当我们碰到自己和他人莫名其妙的举动时,也会成为方便的理解工具。但小说尤其可以让你有更多的社会能力和同情心。去年,《应用社会心理学》(Applied Social Psychology)杂志发表的一篇论文表示:阅读《哈利·波特》如何促使英国和意大利的年轻人更旗帜鲜明地对被污名化的少数派产生好感,例如对待难民。而2013年,心理学家在新学院大学的研究则发现,文学小说能够增强人们表达情感和读懂他人情感的能力。

We think of novels as places in which to lose ourselves, but when we emerge, we take with us inspiration from our favourite characters. A 2012 study by researchers at Ohio State University found that this process could actually change a reader’s behaviour. In one experiment, participants strongly identifying with a fictional character who overcame obstacles to vote proved significantly more likely to vote in a real election.
我们觉得小说是会迷失自我的地方之一,但是我们一旦摆脱出来,就会携有我们从喜欢的角色里得到的灵感。2012年,美国俄亥俄州立大学研究人员的一项研究发现,这个过程可能会改变一个读者的行为。在一项实验中,参与者强烈感受到小说虚构人物克服重重困难去投票,就如同在真正选举中投票一样。

Well-read
博览群书

They may not promise transformation in seven easy steps, but gripping novels can inform and motivate, short stories can console and trigger self-reflection, and poetry has been shown to engage parts of the brain linked to memory. Sometimes an author helps by simply taking your mind off a problem, immersing you so fully in another’s world and outlook that you transcend yourself, returning recharged and determined.
书籍或许没办法保证用七个简单步骤改造人,但扣人心弦的小说可以暗示或激发自我反省;短篇小说可以抚慰和触发个人感悟;而诗歌已被证实与大脑从事记忆的一部分相关联;有时,一个作家可以帮助你轻而易举地把注意力从某个难题转移开,让你深深沉浸于作者的世界中,不自觉间超越自我,重新养精蓄锐,坚定信心。

As Aristotle noted in his Poetics, poetry – by which he meant fiction in general – is more serious than history. While the historian is preoccupied with what happened when, fiction allows us to see what could happen, exercising our imaginations and often our sense of morality along the way.
正如亚里士多德在他的《诗学》中指出,诗歌——这里他泛指小说——比历史更严肃。当历史学家专注于发生了什么事的时候,小说则让我们看到会发生什么,它锻炼我们的想象力,还常常带给我们一种道德感。

A story needn’t lift your heart in order to lift your mood. As author Jane Smiley confides in Thirteen Ways of Looking at the Novel, “Many people, myself among them, feel better at the mere sight of a book”. Experiencing the trials and tribulations of a fictional character can even open us up to problems we’ve been ignoring, sparking rewarding conversations – or offering a way into one that’s proving daunting or difficult. And whatever the fix you find yourself in, there’s always a book to remind you that others have been there before, it’s just a question of finding it.
一个故事不必为提振心情而提振心情。正如简·斯迈利在《十三种方式看小说》中坦言,“很多人,包括我在内,一见到书就心情转好。”同一个虚构的角色经历考验与磨难,甚至可以让我们面对自己已然忽视了的难题,可以碰撞出有益的对话,或者确证某事令人怯步或困难重重。而无论你要发现什么解决之道,总有一本书提醒你早有人经历过,仅需要找到它即可。

A reading cure
阅读治愈

That’s where bibliotherapy comes in. Practised around the world by psychologists, social workers, and counselors along with librarians, it’s become something of a buzzword in the past few years, drawing scholarly researchers and bloggers alike. Alain de Botton’s London-based School of Life even has a quartet of resident ‘bibliotherapists’, including Ella Berthoud and Susan Elderkin, whose book The Novel Cure: An A-Z of Literary Remedies is a thrifty alternative to the school’s £80 ($120) consultations.
这就是阅读疗法的用武之地。在过去几年中,阅读疗法成了一种时尚,广泛存在于心理学家、社会工作者,以及康复辅导员在世界各地的实践中。这也获得学术研究人员和博客作家的一致赞誉。阿兰·德波顿在伦敦的学院生活中,甚至有四分之一的居民运用“阅读疗法”,包括作家埃拉·伯绍德和苏珊·埃尔德金,他们合著有《小说治愈》一书。相比校园心理咨询每次80英镑(约750人民币)的高昂价格,这本用文学治愈心理疾患的书,不失为一种划算的选择。

Yet the notion of books as remedies for emotional disorders isn’t as new-fangled as you might imagine. The ancient Greeks posted signs above library doors, informing readers that they were entering a healing place for the soul. And in the 19th Century, doctors and psychiatric nurses doled out everything from the Bible to travel literature and works in ancient languages.
然而,或许并非如你想象,用读书缓解情绪障碍可不是个新观念。古希腊图书馆大门上面贴的告示告知读者,他们进入了一个治愈灵魂的地方。而18世纪,医生和精神科护士给出的话语几乎都出自圣经、游记,以及古代语言的作品中。

Dorland’s Illustrated Medical Dictionary first acknowledged bibliotherapy in 1941, defining the term as “the employment of books and the reading of them in the treatment of nervous diseases”, but according to the Oxford English Dictionary, it first popped up in print in 1920, in Christopher Morley’s The Haunted Bookshop.
多兰的《插图医学词典》首次承认,阅读疗法在1941年,定义术语为:“通过读书治疗神经疾病的有益活动”,但根据《牛津英语词典》,该词第一次出现在印刷品上是在1920年,出现在克里斯托弗·莫利的《闹鬼书店》一书。该书以第一次世界大战世界动荡不安为背景的小说,书中的那家在布鲁克林的二手书店被称为“家中诗坛”,是个藏书家的天堂。店内有着“调温纸和皮革”芳香的气味,烟斗飘出的烟草香气,店主米夫林先生没昼没夜地喷着烟踱步。

Mifflin is not just a bookseller, though, he’s a “practitioner of bibliotherapy”. As he explains it, “My pleasure is to prescribe books for such patients as drop in here and are willing to tell me their symptoms... There is no one so grateful as the man to whom you have given just the book his soul needed and he never knew it.”
小说中的米夫林不只是一个书商,他也是一个“阅读疗法治疗师”。正如他解释的那样,“我的乐趣就是对来到这里,并愿意把他们的症状告诉我的病人,指定他们需要读的书……当你给了他一本书是他灵魂需求的,而他自己不知道,没有什么比这更值得感激的了”。

Mifflin already knew what researchers at the University of Sussex have since attempted to quantify: that reading is a more efficacious stress reliever than listening to music, going for a walk or sitting down with a nice cup of tea. After just six minutes with a book – any book – their subjects found stress was reduced by up to 68 per cent. With the right book, that really could be time well spent.
看来米夫林已经懂得英国萨塞克斯大学的研究人员所试图量化的——阅读是比听音乐、散步或坐下来品一杯茶更有效的压力缓解方式。任何一本书,只要读上六分钟后,压力可以减少了多达68%。读一本对的书,那真是非常值的。

【原文来源:bbc.com 作者:Hephzibah Anderson 翻译来源:yeeyan.org 译者:刘绎】



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