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译文精选:古堡历史

2015-03-03    来源:yeeyan.org    【      美国外教 在线口语培训

古堡历史
History of Castles

【译文精选】

Origins and History of Castles
城堡的起源和发展历史

From the moment when ancient civilizations started collecting large amounts of wealth, food, resources and power, need for creation of fortified structures arose. In some 5 to 7 thousand years ago, ancient civilizations of India, China and Egypt started making fortified settlements. As centuries and millenniums went on, knowledge of this structures travelled across civilized world, slowly reaching southern, central and eventually northern Europe where people started making hill forts in the Iron Age (1300-700 BC). Roman Empire popularized the use of stonework and defensive construction across Europe, which all culminated in the 9th and 10 century when divided European nobles in France and Germany embraced the custom of making their private castles to protect their wealth, house their troops and rule the surrounding lands. Return of soldiers from the Crusades introduced to Europe advanced construction styles of Middle East, which enabled them to truly start making stone castles of incredible sizes, complexity and defensive capabilities.
当古代文明开始搜罗大量的财富、食物、资源和权力的那一刻起,就迫切需要建造牢固的建筑,大约5-7千年前,古代印度、中国和埃及文明中政权稳固并开始建造这类建筑物,几千年过去了,这些建筑知识在文明世界中得以传播,逐渐扩散到欧洲南部、中部甚至北部地区,那里的人们在铁器时代开始建筑山上城堡。罗马帝国在欧洲普及了凿石和防御建筑的方法,这些技术在9-10世纪达到顶峰,那时法国和德国分崩离析的欧洲贵族们也开始建造自己的私人城堡保护财产、设立私卫、管辖周边土地。从十字军退伍的士兵返回欧洲后,改进了建筑风格,添加了中东地区的模式。这样,才真正有了完全由石头垒成的城堡,规模巨大、结构复杂、防御功能强大。


 

Origins of castles
城堡的起源

Around 4000 years BC, ancient Asian, Middle Eastern and North African civilizations started fortifying their smaller settlements with natural walls (rocks, cliffs), stones and wooden walls. Around 2nd century BC, European dwellers started creating Opidas, hill forts that we heavily used in the defense against advancing roman armies that started conquering France, Germany and England. However, Romans capability to create durable stone and wooden forts and the access to advanced siege weapons proved to be much more effective than simple Oppida hill forts.
大约在公元前4000年,亚洲、中东和北非的古代文明开始利用自然的墙壁构筑防御工事,比如岩礁、悬崖、石块和木壁等;公元前2000前前后,欧洲居民开始创建Opidas,这是建造在山上的堡垒,重点防御来势汹汹的罗马军团,那时它们已经连续征服了法国、德国和英格兰等地。但是,罗马人创造的石制和木制要塞非常耐用,攻城器械又非常先进,这比简单的Opidas防御堡垒要有效得多。

Tradition of building castles was not common in Europe during and after the end of the Roman Empire. Their first mass appearance happened in 9th and 10th century AD after the fall of Carolingian Empire, which left large amount of military nobility responsible for the lands of France and Germany. Wanting to secure their rule, every of those lords started building their own wooden defensive structures, which were used not only for military purposes, but also as the centers of their local government, economy and justice. They were usually created from wood, placed on top of a manually created motte, sometimes with a circular ditches, rampants, banks, and stone walls. Central structure (personal residence of the lord, sometimes with public rooms for government work) was often made from stone, but was usually not secured against fire because of wooden doors, roof and windows. During 9th and 10th centuries, creation of forts and castles was usually not controlled by any government (anyone could make one and claim their land, or use it to protect their land against invaders), which led to the creation of tens of thousands castles in the central Europe (4000 in Switzerland alone).
罗马帝国期间和王国覆灭之后,欧洲并未兴起建筑城堡的传统,第一次大规模出现的时间是在法国卡洛林王朝灭亡之后的9-10世纪,当时卡洛林王朝留下了大量的军中贵族,他们掌管了法国和德国土地,为了维护自身统治,每个贵族都开始建造属于自己的木制防御设施,这不仅是为了军事目的,更是成为了当地行政、经济和司法公正的核心。这些城堡一般由木头制成,坐落于人工堆砌的高地上,有时会挖出环形的壕沟、堤坝和石墙。中心结构(贵族的私人住所,有时也会有管理工作的公用房间)由石头构成,但有时禁不住火攻,因为这些房间的门、房顶和窗户都是木制的。9-10世纪期间,堡垒和城堡建筑已经不是由任何一个政府来控制了(任何人都能建造,宣布土地所有或者用来保护土地不受侵犯),结果,欧洲中部地区的城堡数以万计、不计其数(光是瑞士就有4000座城堡)。


 

Pre-Crusades
十字军东征前

After 1000 AD, castle construction started spreading across Europe with ever rising speed. The biggest rise happened in Italy, with a brief spike happening in Spain after 1020 after skirmishes of Spanish against Muslims from Africa. Majority of the castles created in that time was constructed from timber [Spanish used mud -bricks], with some of them managing to remain standing and fully functional for 4-5 centuries. As 11th and 12th century plunged Europe in almost constant warfare between smaller lords, and national fights, castles made from stone emerged everywhere. Viking war parties forced England and Denmark to start build their first stone castles around 1066, mostly as a coastal defenses. As crafting technology evolved, 12th century castles in England, Scotland and Ireland started taking form of Donjons, large castles with functions that shifted from functional to decorative. However at the end of 12th century, number of new castles dropped significantly, mostly because expenses of stonework. Basic shape of castles was rectangular, with large walls that housed towers that had arrow slits on several levels.
公元1000年之后,城堡建筑以前所未有的速度席卷欧洲,尤以意大利为先;1020年后,西班牙和来自亚洲的穆斯林爆发冲突后,西班牙的城堡建筑也是风靡一时。那时大多数城堡都是由木头建造的(西班牙人用的是泥砖),其中有些城堡经历四五百年仍屹立不倒、功能良好。11-12世纪,整个欧洲诸侯连战、烽火连天,于是石堡拔地而起,1066年前后,维京主战派强迫英格兰人和丹麦人为其建造第一座石头城堡,作为沿海防御机构。随着工艺技术的进步,12世纪,英格兰、苏格兰和爱尔兰的城堡开始模仿中世纪的城堡主塔样式,大城堡的功能也从防御变为装饰,然后到12世纪末,由于凿石工程耗资巨大,新城堡数量大大减少。城堡的基本形状是长方形,围墙很高,设有堡垒,不同高度均具备垛口。

Crusades and Templar castles
十字军东征和圣殿骑士的城堡

Three Crusade wars significantly changed the way Europeans viewed castles and fortifications. Advanced techniques they encountered in Middle East were soon transferred to France, Germany, Italy, Spain and England, and castles built in Crusader states become templates for many castles built in Europe. Majority of 13th century European castles were created by Military Orders of Knights Hospitaller, Knights Templar, and Teutonic Knights. These castles featured several rings of heavily fortified walls, towers for defense, and wooden or rope bridges between towers and ringed walls that could be destroyed to slow down the enemy and force him to fight against inner walls. These castles also featured machicolations (holes for dropping objects on the ground). The most influential countries for castle innovation were England, France and Spain.
三次十字军东征极大地改变了欧洲人对待古堡和防御工事的态度,他们在中东地区所接触的先进技术很快就传到了法国、德国、意大利、西班牙和英格兰,十字军王国中的城堡成了欧洲古堡的典范,13世纪大多数欧洲古堡都是在军令下建造完成的,如医院骑士团、圣殿骑士团和条顿骑士团。这些城堡的特点是重重石墙防御森严,堡垒多现,石墙和堡垒之间由木制或绳桥连接,砍断这些索桥可以减慢敌人进攻速度,并与内墙攻击正面相对。还有一个特点是堞口颇多(可以往下扔石块的开孔),古堡创新最明显的国家是英格兰、法国和西班牙。


 

Arrival of gunpowder
火药初现

1320s was the decade when gunpowder artillery arrived in Europe, and this caused construction of new wave of fortified defenses that allowed mounting of cannons and firing behind the walls trough vertical slits. Defensive artillery castles sprung all across the Europe [and later New World], but the rise of destructive firepower cannons could create forced castle makers to concede that 100% defense was not possible.
14世纪20年代,欧洲首现火药大炮,这引起了防御工事的建造新浪潮,这种工事必须能够抵挡墙外的大炮和射击,防御大炮的城堡席卷全欧(后来传到新世界),因为无法做到完全防御,所有这些具有极大破坏性的火力武器迫使城堡建筑者不得不做出让步。

Bu middle of 15th century, heavy guns were the preferred tools for attacking castles all across the Europe. The only viable way of defense were much thicker walls, and curved sides (for deflecting shots). Sadly, none of these techniques were easily adaptable to the castles created before age of artillery. In 1500 Italian builders and technicians created angled bastion, which allowed bastions to have heavy contingent of guns that can operate with wide range of targeting. Some castles used bastions so much, that their walls were shaped in the form of star (so called “Star Forts”).
到15世纪中期,欧洲进攻城堡的趁手武器是重炮,防御的唯一方法就是加厚城墙,墙面弯曲(使子弹走向打偏)。可悲的是,对于火炮时代前建造的这些城堡来说,这些技术没有一项是实用的。16世纪,意大利建造商和技术人员发明了棱堡,能够放置重炮,射击范围就扩了大许多,而一些城堡的棱堡很多,因此城墙的形状看起来就像星星一样(所以被称为星形堡垒)。

By the end of 16th century, Europe was home to between 75 and 100 thousand castles, some functional, some destroyed. Across the Atlantic, colonial powers built several defensive castles, forts, citadels and fortified manor houses, mostly Spain and France. Their design and build quality mimicked those created in Europe.
16世纪末,欧洲城堡的数量已经有7.5万到10万座,一些功能良好还能再用,而一些已经遭到了严重破坏,大西洋的另一边,殖民主义国家也建造了几座防御性城堡、堡垒、要塞和宅邸,其中大多数由西班牙和法国建筑,他们的设计和建筑质量都模仿了欧洲的城堡。


 

Decline of castle creation and fashion revival
城堡的没落和再次兴起

Arrival of the 17th century brought sharp decline in the creation of new castles. However, old ones remained in use constantly, some remained in the ownership of the aristocratic families, some were held by military, and many were converted to be centers of local administration, government or court. As open conflict between lords and countries started to subdue, fashion changes caused many nobles to move out from their castles and settle in large and expensive country houses. Popularity of castles returned in 19th and early 20th century, when several of them were created for nostalgic purposes and admiration to the medieval time of chivalry, gothic architecture and renaissance. One of the most famous castles of that time was Castle Neuschwanstein that was built by Ludwig II of Bavaria in 1892. This castle served as an inspiration to all modern times depictions of castles, most famously Disney’s Sleeping Beauty's Castle.
17世纪伊始,新城堡的建造数量大大减少,然后,有些城堡还在使用当中,一些还属于贵族家庭,一些被军方控制,还有的转变成为当地行政、管理和法院中心,随着贵族和国家之间的冲突日益减少,时尚观念的转变使许多贵族都搬离了城堡,搬到了价值不菲的乡村大别墅中。19-20世纪,城堡再次流行起来,有些城堡就是为了纪念、赞美中世纪的骑士精神、哥特式风格建筑和文艺复兴,其中最著名的是新天鹅堡,它建于1892年,由国王路德维希二世下令建造,这座城堡启发了现代社会的城堡设计,最著名的莫过于迪斯尼·睡美人城堡了。

【来源:famouscastles.net 翻译来源:yeeyan.org 译者:云要高飞】



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