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周黎明:革命历史题材获青睐

2015-03-04    来源:英语点津    【      美国外教 在线口语培训

周黎明:革命历史题材获青睐

【原滋原味双语阅读】

Before Tsui Hark's new film came out at year's end, I, like macritics, was expecting a fiasco. How likely could it be that a filmmaker reared in a freewheeling capitalist system would be able to adapt a "revolutionary" work? The values would clash violently, I presumed.
在徐克的新电影年底上映之前,我,正像其他的评论者一样,预期这会是一场惨败。一个在随心所欲的资本主义制度下长大的电影制片人怎么可能成功驾驭一部“革命”作品?一定会有激烈的价值观冲突,我想。

Surprise, surprise! The Taking of Tiger Mountain turned out to be a runaway hit, not only at the box office, to the tune of 800-plus million yuan (more than $128 million), but by word-of-mouth. The Hong Kong director has accomplished the near impossible-he has brought new relevance to a relic of the "cultural revolution" (1966-76).
惊喜,惊喜!没想到《智取威虎山》竟然大获成功,不仅票房收入高达八亿多元人民币,口碑也相当不错。这个香港导演完成了一件几乎不可能的事——他将一个“文化大革命”时期的遗物赋予了新的意义。

To understand what Tsui has done, one has to have a firm grasp of China's cultural scene some 40 years ago. To put it bluntly, there was no culture as most would see it today. Almost all artists were sent into exile or labor camps. The whole population subsisted on only a dozen shows, which were filmed and screened repeatedly across the nation.
要想明白徐所做的意义,需要对大约40年前中国的文化生活有稳固的了解。说白了,那时候没有像现在一样大多数人所见到的文化。几乎所有的文艺工作者都被流放或者发配到劳改营里劳动。全国人民能观看到的只有十几个节目,它们被拍成影片在全国各地反复放映。

There is a lot of misunderstanding about the so-called Eight Model Operas. First of all, they were not born during the "cultural revolution"; most had their first incarnations before 1966. They were handpicked by Jiang Qing (Madame Mao), who essentially served as the producer, or even director, giving specific instructions on every detail, during the metamorphosis into what people later saw en masse. Even Mao himself had a hand in changing the ending of Shajiabang-by supplanting a subterfuge with a direct attack on the enemy. There was also lots of shuffling in casting as renowned performers became the targets of denunciation and were hastily replaced with younger peers.
人们对于所谓的“八个样板戏”有不少误解。首先,它们并不是产生于文革时期,大多数作品在1966年之前都已经基本成型了。江青(毛泽东的夫人)精心挑选了它们,并基本上担任了制片人甚或是导演,在作品蜕变为人们后来集体观看到的版本的过程中,她对表演的每个细节都做了明确的指导。甚至毛泽东本人也参与了对《沙家浜》结局的修改——用对敌人的直接攻击取代了计谋。演员阵容也大变,因为著名的表演者在当时都成了被批斗的对象,不得不仓促地重新选一批年轻演员。

Suffice it to say, only when the eight shows were filmed-some more than once-was it possible for them to gain a nationwide audience. They were re-adapted for the stage by local performing ensembles, often imitating every move of the screen version. Since they were the staple among a dozen films still permitted for public consumption and received numerous screenings, most people could recite every line.
不用说,只有当这八个节目被拍成电影——有的不止被拍了一次——它们才有可能被全国人民都看到。地方的表演团队改编这些作品时,往往会模仿荧幕上的每一个动作,然后在舞台上演出。由于这些作品是被允许公开放映的十几个电影中的主要节目,被放映了无数次,大部分群众甚至记住了每一句台词。


Second, the Eight Model Operas were not all Peking Operas. Two of them were ballets: The White-Haired Girl and Red Detachment of Women, often shown to foreign visitors as they did not need translation. Not all of them were equally popular. Raid on the White Tiger Regiment, an opera on fighting US soldiers in Korea, was so low on the public radar that another opera, The Azalea Mountain, from a later batch of model operas, was often mistaken for one of the original eight.
第二,“八个样板戏”并不都是京剧。有两个是芭蕾舞剧:《白毛女》和《红色娘子军》。因为不需要翻译,它们经常用于向外宾表演。“八个样板戏”也不是一样地受欢迎。《奇袭白虎团》,这部讲述朝鲜战争中打击美军的京剧,在群众中反响过低,以至于从后一批样板戏中脱颖而出的《杜鹃山》往往被认为是最初的八剧之一。

Third, these works were never officially banned after the "cultural revolution". The public was so sick and tired of them after a decade of extremely limited entertainment (even the word "entertainment" was frowned upon and the more politically correct "propaganda" was preferred), that they took to the plethora of music choices suddenly available. But one decade later, around the late 1980s, some started to feel nostalgia for the forgotten operas. Arias and scenes reappeared, soon followed by fully staged productions. But only those portraying pre-1949 stories made a comeback because the others run counter to existing government policies, like entrepreneurs being public enemies, as shown in the operas.
第三,文化大革命之后,这些作品从来没有被正式禁止过。在遭受长达十年极其有限的娱乐禁锢后(甚至是“娱乐”这个词在当时都会让人看不惯,而在政治上更正确的另一个词“宣传”是首选),人们已经非常厌烦这些作品了,转而大量享受突然之间遍地都是的音乐。但十年后,在20世纪80年代后期,一些人开始怀念起那些被遗忘的样本剧。熟悉的调子和戏剧场面重新出现,紧接着便有了完整版的表演。但是只有那些描述1949年之前事迹的故事重返舞台,因为其余的作品主题违背了现有的政府政策,如有的京剧会传达出企业家是民众公敌之类的信息。

The debate on the nature of the model operas has since flared intermittently. Some argue they were the products of the revolution and convey its excesses and its ideology. Others contend that they embody the collective memory of a whole generation. Besides, we should not give all the credit to Jiang Qing. Many top artists put their creativity into them.
自此以后,关于样板戏性质的争论也开始断断续续地爆发。一些人认为样板戏是文化大革命的产物,传达的是文化大革命的极端和它的意识形态。另一些人则认为样板戏是整整一代人的集体回忆。此外,我们也不应该把所有的成就都归功于江青,许多顶尖的艺术家们也贡献了他们的创造力。

Jiang would pick filmmakers, who were released from detention and were shown films made in Hollywood-in a time when only a few top leaders had such access. They were supposed to learn Hollywood's art and craft and use it in filming the operas. Those artists had flourishing careers either before or after the revolution.
江青会挑选一些电影制片人,将他们从拘留中释放出来,并向他们展示好莱坞制作的电影——在那个时候,只有少数高层领导有这样的机会。他们被要求学习好莱坞的电影制作艺术和技巧并应用于拍摄戏剧。这些艺术家在文化大革命之前或之后职业发展都很好。

One person was widely perceived to be responsible for fusing the musical styles of traditional Peking Opera and Western orchestral music. Yu Huiyong, a musical prodigy, created the new, richer and mellower sound for the model operas. But he was not one of those suffering artists plucked by Jiang. He was a political climber who curried her favor and later gained the position of culture minister. During the post-revolution investigation, he killed himself, but his contribution to the model operas was never in question.
大家普遍认为有一个人负责融合了传统京剧的音乐风格和西方的管弦乐风格。他就是于会泳,一个音乐天才,创造了样板戏新的、更加丰富和圆润的音乐风格。但他不在那些备受江青折磨的艺术家之列。他是一个逢迎江青喜好的政治新秀,后来还得到了文化部部长的职位。在文化大革命结束后的审查中,他自杀身亡,但他对样板剧的贡献将永不会被质疑。

I grew up with these works, so I can sense why people are so attached to them. For most of them, music heard during a certain phase of life would leave an indelible imprint, even bad music. The model operas are stridently ideological. The bad guy would not smile but grimace and the hero did not walk as much as strike heroic poses all the way. Modern audiences can enjoy them as red kitsch as every character seems to be a caricature of him or herself.
我从小是看着这些作品长大的,所以我明白人们为什么对样板戏如此情有独钟。对大多人来说,在人生的某个阶段所听到的音乐会在内心留下不可磨灭的印记,即使是糟糕的音乐。样板戏具有强烈的意识形态色彩。坏人不会微笑只会扮鬼脸,英雄不会一直保持罢工时的英勇姿势走路。现代观众可以把它们当做俗气的红色作品来看,因为每一个角色的表演看起来都像是对角色本身夸张滑稽的演绎。

Artistically, the stories follow the rules of melodrama, with clashes between good and evil as defined by the establishment of the era. They are very easy to digest. There are occasional glimpses, such as the famous trio in Shajiabang with three characters scheming against one another, into the sophistication that went into the making of these works. Yes, much of the top talent of the country worked on them, but they were not given anything resembling a free rein. I believe art should be free, so art created in bondage, to me, does not represent the best from these artists.
从艺术角度来说,样板戏总体上是遵守通俗剧的套路,正邪分明,便于大众理解。但某些细节的处理有文人戏的高级和精致,比如《沙家浜》里著名的“智斗”三重唱。是的,这个国家许多顶尖人才都在作品的制作上发挥了才能,但是他们却并不允许自由发挥。我认为艺术应该是自由的,因此对我而言,在束缚下创造出来的艺术代表不了这些艺术家的最好水平。

I don't think people with fond memories of the operas are the same ones who want to revive or relive the revolution. The former are those in their 60s and 70s who failed to find resonance with later music, and the latter are mostly youngsters who were born after the revolution and want to vent their frustration over what they see today. The model operas are part of China's cultural legacy, an aberration that deserves to be studied rather than blindly idolized.
我不认为那些对样板剧有美好依恋的人等同于那些想恢复或重温文化大革命的人。前者是那些在60或70多岁时发现自己无法从后来的音乐中找到共鸣的人,而后者大多数是出生在文化大革命后的年轻人,他们想发泄自己对今天所看到的一些现象的不满。样板戏属于中国文化遗产的一部分,作为一种特殊时代的产物,它值得被研究而不是被盲目崇拜。

What Hong Kong filmmaker Tsui Hark did was a third way out. He took the story of Taking Tiger Mountain by Strategy, one of the more popular of the eight, or more accurately, adapted the novel the opera was based on, and made it into a Hollywood-style action movie. The parallels between the so-called genre film and the model opera are evident: Both portray characters in black and white, but the movie is more palatable to modern sensibilities mainly because the main character, Yang Zirong, is now a lone hero with incredible smarts and devil-may-care chutzpah.
香港导演徐克所采用的是第三种方法。他改编了“八个样板戏”中比较受欢迎的一个剧《智取威虎山》,或者更准确地说,他改编了这个戏的原著小说,把它制作成了好莱坞风格的动作片。这个所谓的类型片和样板戏的相似之处很明显:都是通过非黑即白的方式刻画人物,但这个电影更迎合现代人的口味,主要是因为主角杨子荣,现在是一个有着无比聪明的头脑和不顾一切的勇气的孤胆英雄。

Some detractors of the movie say the historical character who became the villain in the opera, and now in the feature version, was actually not that bad. He fought Japanese invaders and was not that reckless with innocent lives. For me, these criticisms are irrelevant. This is not a documentary and a fictional film is not supposed to uncover truth beneath layers of urban myth. Tsui has to make the guy morally reprehensible to justify the raid on him. The bandit chief is still cartoonish, but in a more delicious way than in the opera.
电影的一些评论者说,昔日在样板戏中成为不折不扣恶棍的历史人物,现在在这部故事片中变得实际上没有那么坏。他抗击日本侵略者,对无辜百姓的性命也并不是那么的毫不在乎。对我来说,这些评论是无关紧要的。这不是一部纪录片而是一部虚构性的电影,作为后者没有必要去揭露传说中的事实。徐必须塑造出一个十分不道德的家伙这样才能证明对他发动袭击的正义性。虽然电影对强盗首领的刻画依然显得非黑即白,但是这要比样板剧中的刻画吸引人多了。

In a sense, Tsui has substituted the old way with the Hollywood method, taking what's useful from the story and enhancing narrative elements that appeal to the young generation. He is not the first Chinese filmmaker to come up with this strategy. But with his success, there will be more efforts to mine the old field of ideological stories for the purpose of pure entertainment.
从某种意义上说,徐用好莱坞的方式代替了旧有的手法,并选取故事中有用的东西加以发挥,还改进了吸引年轻一代观众的叙事元素。他并不是第一个采用这种技巧的中国导演。但是随着他的成功,会有更多的人为了纯粹的娱乐目的来挖掘这些旧有的意识形态故事。

(文章来源:中国日报网英语点津 作者:周黎明 )



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