用户名: 密码: 验证码:    注册 | 忘记密码?
首页|听力资源|每日听力|网络电台|在线词典|听力论坛|下载频道|部落家园|在线背单词|双语阅读|在线听写|普特网校
您的位置:主页 > 英语能力 > 阅读 > 英语文摘 >

译文精选:如何培养同理心

2015-05-29    来源:yeeyan.org    【      美国外教 在线口语培训

如何培养同理心
How to Be Empathetic

【译文精选】

"You never have the patience just to sit and listen."
“你总是没有耐心坐着听。”

"All you ever want to do is try to fix things."
“你总是只顾着解决问题。”

 

"You just don’t understand how much it hurt when you said that."
“你就是不明白你说那话的时候有多伤人。”

"You just don't get it."
“你就是不了解。”

Judgments like these and countless others verbalized or thought in the context of interpersonal relationships often point to one popular problem: the lack of empathy for the other. This blog will clarify the nature of empathy, and why it is so important, and gives you nine practical guidelines for addressing this block to successful interpersonal relationships.
这类话语,以及其他在人际关系中无数次说出或想到的批判,往往指向一个常见的问题:对于对方缺乏同理心。这篇博文将阐明同理心的性质,同理心为何那么重要,以及提供九条实用的方针,以应对这个对成功的人际关系造成阻碍的问题。

Empathy is a condition of functional interpersonal relationships.  In personal contexts, including marriages, partnerships, friendships, and parental relationships, as well as in professional contexts such as managerial, professional-client, student-teacher, and peer relationships, being empathetic to the situations of others can promote trust, leading to open and honest communication, thereby facilitating resolution of interpersonal conflicts and constructive change.  Indeed, the recent work on emotional intelligence undertaken by Daniel Goleman suggests that emotional intelligence, one’s emotional quotient (link is external) (EQ), which includes empathy as a central component, may sometimes be more important than one’s intelligence quotient (IQ).  The early research conducted by Carl Rogers on the importance of empathy in building trust in psychotherapeutic as well as other interpersonal relationships, has even set the stage for development of self-report inventories designed to measure one’s empathy quotient (link is external)(EQ).
同理心是正常运作的人际关系的先决条件。不管是私人场合,如婚姻、爱情、友情、亲子关系,或者是专业场合,如经理与职员、专业人员与客户、师生、同行之间的关系,在这些关系中对别人的处境产生同理心,会促进彼此之间的信任,以致沟通公开、真诚,因而促进人际冲突的解决以及建设性的变化。的确,Daniel Goleman 最近进行的有关情商的研究,显示了一个人的情商,有时比智商来得更重要,而同理心又是情商的一个中心成分。 Carl Rogers针对同理心在心理治疗和其他人际关系中建立信任的重要性所作的初步研究,甚至已经为开发测量个人的同理商数的自我报告清单铺平了道路。

However, there is considerable disagreeable about what exactly is being measured and what you can do to improve your empathetic prowess.  There are some researchers who view empathy as an emotional response to another person’s emotional state; whereas cognitive accounts proceed primarily or exclusively in terms of understanding another person’s state of mind.  These extremes, however, fail to capture the idea that empathy involves both affective and cognitive components.  In this blog, I will provide such a mixed account with the primary goal of telling you how you can be empathetic.  So what is empathy?
至于这些清单确切在测量什么,以及一个人能做出什么以增加同理能力,目前还存有显著的争议。有些研究人员将同理心视为一个人对于另一个人的情绪状态的情绪反应,而认知叙说的依据,主要或完全是为了理解另一个人的心态。但是,这两个极端,都无法捕捉到同理心蕴含着情感上和认知上的成分的概念。在这篇博文中,我将会向你形容这样的一个综合的叙述,目的是要告诉你如何才能有同理心。那么,同理心是什么?

The Virtue of Being Empathetic
同理心的美德

First, it is important to distinguish between empathy as a state of mind and empathy as a character trait or disposition.  The first is related to the second inasmuch as those who are empathetic as one of their character traits will tend to experience states of empathy in their relating to the plights of others.
首先,我们要分辨同理心为心态,以及同理心为性格。 两者有所关联,因为性格具同理心的人,往往会在论及别人的处境的时候,会产生同理心的心态。

As a state of mind, empathy involves resonating with what is going on in the subjective world of another.  Let’s call the person with whom you empathize, the target of your empathy.  Now, when you empathize with someone, not only do we know what the target is going through, you also feel it, although, as Rogers would say, “without losing the “as if” quality, that is, without losing your objectivity as an observer.   So, a friend of yours just lost her mother; and, while you may not have lost a parent, you can still empathize; for you can know what it might be like to lose a parent—you can imagine the harsh reality of not ever being able to see, confide in, or experience the love and support of someone who has played such a major role in your life.  So you can imagine what it might be like to lose your own parent even if you have never had the actual experience. This is what it means “to put yourself in the shoes of the other person.” And so doing can also lead you to emotionally appreciate the loss as if it had occurred to you—again, without losing this "as if" quality.  The emotional response here will include the somatic sensations that might normally accompany the loss of a beloved, such as a hollow pit in your stomach, lump in your throat, and teary-eyes.  You will then also have certain behavioral tendencies associated with such sadness, such as the tendency to want to do something to fix the situation, along with the blunt realization that nothing can ever be done to change the brute fact of the beloved’s death.
同理心的心态,涉及了和另一个人的主观世界里所发生的事产生共鸣。你对一个人产生同理心的时候(在这篇文章中,我们称那个人为你的同理心的“目标”),你不仅知道你的目标正经历什么样的事,你也感觉得到他的感受,同时又如同Rogers 所说的“不失去‘如同’的特性”,意即:不失去你作为观察者的客观角度。比方说,你的朋友刚失去母亲;你虽然没失去父母,但是你还可以对他有同理心,因为你会知道失去父母亲的感觉。如果失去了一位在你的生命中扮演那么重要的角色的人,你可以想象你再也见不到他/她,和他/她倾诉心声,或者感受到他/她的爱和支持。所以,即使你没有失去你的父亲或母亲,也可以想象这个经历会如何。这就是“设身处地”的意思。这么做,也能让你感受到这样的损失,如同它发生在你身上一样,但又不失去‘如同’的特性。这里的情感反应,包括了一般上伴随着丧亲之痛的躯体感觉,如:肚子胀气、喉咙有压迫感、眼泪盈眶。你可能也会产生一些和这种悲伤情绪有关的一些行为倾向,例如:试图做些什么以纠正情况,同时断然意识到,已经没有什么能改变亲人之死的残酷事实。

Yet some people do not seem to resonate very well with the experiences of others.  While they may understand their circumstances, they may not have the requisite emotional response.  Still other people may lack the understanding of what a person may be going through as well.  Indeed, some of us may be said to be more empathetic than others, which means that some are prone to empathize more often than others.
尽管如此,有些人就是无法和别人的经历很好地产生共鸣。他们虽然能理解他人的处境,但是他们没有所需的情感反应。又有些人甚至可能也不理解对方的处境。的确,我们当中有些人可说是比别人更富同理心,意即:有些人比别人更倾向于更频繁地产生同理心。 

Notice that in saying that some people are more empathetic, I do not mean that some people have higher quality experiences of empathy than others.  As a personality trait, empathy is more like being pregnant than it is like being overweight.  People are not more or less pregnant.  They are pregnant or not.  In contrast, people can be more or less overweight.  Being empathetic does not admit of degrees.  Either you are being empathetic or not.  To the extent that you lack any of the requisite cognitive, emotional or behavioral components of empathy, you lack empathy.  Thus the person who feels emotionally distraught over someone else’s bad news does not empathize if he or she really doesn’t understand or appreciate what the bad news really is; and conversely, the person who knows and appreciates what has happened but just doesn’t feel it, also lacks empathy.  So the question of how to be more empathetic turns on the question about how to more often attain the cognitive, behavioral, and emotional synergy that is involved in empathy.
请注意,我说有些人更富同理心,意思不是说有些人所经历的同理心比别人更强烈。作为一个性格特征,同理心比较像是怀孕,而不像超重。人们不是怀孕得多或少,他们只能说是怀孕或者没怀孕。反之,人们可以超重得多或少。同理心不论及程度。你可以有同理心,或者是没有同理心。如果你缺乏同理心所需的认知、情感或行为上的成分,就是缺乏同理心。因此,一个人因为别人的坏消息而情感上感到难过的时候,若是他不明白或不了解这个坏消息是什么,就是没有同理心。相反的,明白并了解发生的事,但毫无感觉,也是缺乏同理心。因此,如何产生同理心的问题,关键在于如何更频繁地得到同理心所涉及的认知、情感和行为上的协同作用。

Notice too that empathy is not merely a laundry list of independent cognitive, behavioral, and emotional variables; it is a balance of such factors such that one is thinking, feeling, and behaviorally inclined in ways that are mutually supportive.  Thus, there is interplay between these factors.  Thus, the thought of your friend in such emotional pain, prompts your own painful sensations, and these feelings, in turn, inform and transform your thoughts, particularly your rating or evaluation of what happened (“How can this be! Such a good person should have to suffer like this!”)
请也注意,同理心不只是认知、情感或行为变量的清单;它是这些因素的平衡,以致一个人思想、感受和行为的方式倾向于相互支持。因此,这些因素之间存在着互动。因此,你想起你的朋友感到痛苦,引发了你自己痛苦的感受,这些感受接着会影响并转变你的思想,尤其是你对于发生的事的评估(“怎么会这样?这样的好人不应该这样受折磨!”)。

Moreover, people who may properly be said to be empathetic are people who tend to be empathetic.  That is, empathizing on occasion no more makes someone an empathetic person than does telling the truth on occasion make someone truthful.  For, an empathetic person, like the truthful person, is in a habit of being empathetic.  That is, when others are suffering, they tend to experience empathy for their plights.  This does not mean that empathetic people must always feel empathy in such cases any more than truthful people must always tell the truth.  However, when lack of empathic regard becomes more the rule than the exception, then it is clear that the person in question is not habitually disposed toward empathy.
况且,能正确地被称为具同理心的人,是倾向于产生同理心的人。也就是说,如果只是偶尔产生同理心,不会让一个人成为有同理心的人,就如一个人若只是偶尔说实话,也不会让他成为诚实的人。这是因为,一个具同理心的人,和诚实的人一样,有了产生同理心的习惯。意思是:当别人受苦的时候,他们倾向于为对方的处境感受到同理心。这并不意味着具同理心的人遇上这类事的时候,必须感受到同理心,如同诚实的人每次都必须说实话一样。但是,如果缺乏同理心成了规则而非例外,很明显地,这个人不是倾向于产生同理心。

Further, the analogy with being truthful is also revealing in another way.  Empathy, like truthfulness, may appropriately be considered a moral virtue.  According to Aristotle, moral virtues involve the balance of cognitive, behavioral, and emotional factors.  The morally virtuous person is one who exercises rational constraint in the indulgences of appetites and actions.  Likewise, an empathetic person applies her knowledge of the plights of others to inform her emotional responses to these situations, and acts in line with such enlightened emotions.  For example, knowing how someone came to be homeless—the loss of a job, getting evicted from his apartment as a result of not being able to pay the rent, not having an address affecting his ability to find another job, etc.—can inform the sadness one experiences for the plight of the homeless person and can help motivate one to do something about it.
除此之外,同理心和诚实的比喻,也揭示出另一个事实。同理心和诚实性一样,可以视作一个道德上的美德。根据亚里士多德,美德涉及了认知、行为和情感因素的平衡。道德上有美德的人,是一个面对欲望和行为放纵的时候表现出合理约束的人。同样的,一个具同理心的人利用她对于他人的处境的认识,给自己对于这些处境的情感反应提供信息,并依据这些受到启发的情感来行事。举例说明,知道了某个人为什么无家可归(例如,失去工作,无法交房租而被赶出公寓,没有住址以致无法找另一份工作,等等),会对于一个人为了无家可归的人产生的悲痛提供信息,也会激励他帮助这个人处理他的问题。 

Now, Aristotle maintained that one attains virtue through practice.  Thus people learn to be truthful, courageous, and just by telling the truth, doing courageous things, and treating others justly.  Similarly, being empathetic takes practice.  In order to become empathetic (that is, cultivate the virtue of empathy), you need to work at it by being empathetic. 
亚里士多德也主张,一个人要通过实践才达得到美德。因此,人们要学会诚实、勇敢、公正,就要通过说实话、做出勇敢的事、以及公正地对待别人。同样地,要有同理心,就必须实践。要成为具同理心的人(意即,培养同理心的美德),就要努力的对别人有同理心。

So the question is this:  How can you attain the virtue of empathy?   In what follows I will venture an answer to this question, in the form of nine practical guidelines, gleaned from my life’s journey, personally, academically, and clinically:
所以,问题是:一个人怎么得到同理心的美德?接下来,我会利用以下从我私人、学术及临床的经验收集而来的九条方针,尝试回答这个问题:

How to Be Empathetic:  Nine Guidelines
如何具有同理心:九条方针

1.  Focus your attention on the welfare, interests, and needs of others
1. 把焦点放在别人的福利、利益与需求上

As said, there is a cognitive component to empathizing with another.  That is, there is certain knowledge you must have to empathize with the other person. First, one does not simply empathize with another person; rather one empathizes with another about something. That which empathy is about may appropriately be called the subject of empathy. Now, the subject of empathy is always some event or state of affairs that is contrary to the welfare, interests, or needs of the target. By "welfare," I mean the promotion of happiness (pleasure and the absence of pain and suffering). By "interests," I mean seriously held desires, goals, and life plans, and rights.  By "needs" I mean such things as food, clothing, and shelter. (nonphysical “needs” such as love, intimacy, freedom, autonomy, friendship, and belonging, I include under interests.).  Any fact that affects or bears on the welfare, interests, and needs of others also counts as pertinent knowledge for the purposes of empathizing.
之前提过,对别人产生同理心,有一个认知上的成分。意思是,你必须有某些知识,才能和对方产生同理心。首先,一个人不是简单地对另一个人产生同理心;一个人必须为了某一件事而和对方产生同理心。这件事,可以适当地称之为同理心的“主题”。同理心的主题,一定是和目标的福利、利益与需求相违的事件或处境。我所说的“福利”,指的是促进幸福(快乐、没有痛楚或苦难)。我所说的“利益”,指的是认真持有的欲望、目标、生命计划、权利。我所说的“需求”,指的是食物、衣装、安身之处。(非实体的需求,如爱、亲密、自由、友情、归属感,我将之列为“利益”。)任何一个影响他人的福利、利益与需求的事物,也算为同理心的有关知识。

Thus, if you know that another has lost a loved one, this fact counts as pertinent knowledge; but also, if you know that the beloved was killed by a drunk driver, then that fact is also relevant.  Why?  It’s because this fact explain the loss.  Indeed, the fact that this individual was struck down by such a random, needless, unanticipated act helps to illuminate just how traumatic the event must be for the target. So, the subject of empathy always consists of facts (or fact claims) about some event or state of affairs adverse to the welfare, interests, or needs of the target, including any facts (or fact claims) relevant to this adversity.  
因此,如果你知道一个人失去了亲人,这个事实就算是有关知识。但是,如果你也知道这位亲人是被人醉酒驾车撞死的,这个事实也是有关知识。为什么?因为这个事实解释了损失。的确,逝者被这样一个随机、无必要、又意外的行为所害,强调了这个事件对目标会有多么具创伤力。因此,同理心的主题必须是违反目标的福利、利益与需求的事件或处境,这也包括了任何和这个逆境有关的事实(或事实宣称)。

2.  Key into shared human values
2. 融入人类的共同价值观

Such ability to key into the welfare, interests, and needs of others also requires the ability to take another’s value perspective. For example, most of us can appreciate the hardship of losing a beloved family member.  But what if the beloved family member is a pet, say a goldfish?  Here, even if you, yourself, would not lament the death of a goldfish, you may still know what it feels like to lose someone whom you love, and so your powers of empathy may still extend to the target’s loss. In a general sense, the subject of empathy in this case is about loss of a loved one, which is a shared human value.  Similarly, one need not be gay to empathize with a gay person about a partner’s sexual infidelity. Empathy thus involves the ability to key into shared human values across diverse interpersonal contexts and cultures.
这种融入他人的福利、利益与需求的能力,也需要有采用他人的价值观的能力。举例说明,我们大多数的人会理解到失去亲人的痛苦。但是如果这个亲人是宠物(像金鱼)呢?在这里,就算你自己不会哀悼一条金鱼的死,你可能还是会知道失去你爱的人的感受,因此你的同理心也可能会延伸到目标的损失。这个例子的主题,在一般意义上,指的是失去亲人,这是一种人类的共同价值观。同样的,一个人不需要是同性恋,也可以和一位伴侣不忠的同性恋者产生同理心。因此,同理心涉及的,是横跨多种人际关系和文化地融入人类的共同价值观的能力。

This value dimension of empathizing is integral to the emotional component of empathy.  In merely understanding the facts pertaining to the subject of empathy, one is not engaging in the subjective world of the target.  One cannot feel what he is going through. To be empathetic, you must also “feel bad” about the target’s plight.  Here you are not simply entertaining facts; you are also rating or evaluating them.  You are assessing the badness of what the target is going through—the suffering, the anguish of not being accepted by one’s peers; the loss of a dear one; the painful realization that the love of one’s life has been unfaithful; the fear of losing one’s livelihood; the frustration of repeatedly having bad luck; and so on. To get to this place, you will need to identify with the misfortune in terms of the shared human values that are at stake. Here is where you put yourself in the shoes of the target and imagine how you too would feel if you were confronting the identical situation.  From this phenomenological position, you are still not the other person but you nonetheless are (psychologically) there, confronting the same adversity.  From this perspective, you can then appreciate what the target is going through, because you now share in the misfortune.  Its badness is now evident to you from this shared, interpersonal, phenomenological perspective.  
同理心的这个价值维度,是同理心的情感成分不可或缺的一部分。单单了解同理心的主题的有关事实,并不能体会目标的主观世界;你无法感受到他的经历。要有同理心,你就要为目标的处境感到“心疼”。在这里,你不只是处理事实,你也是在评估这些事实。你评估的是目标的经历有多糟:他的煎熬、他不被同行接受而感到的苦痛、亲人之死、意识到一生最爱的人对他不忠的痛楚、生计不保的恐惧、不断遇到坏运气的挫折感、等等。要达到这个地步,就必须先辨认出目标的不幸如何违反了人类的共同价值观。你在这里要设身处地,想象自己若面对相同的处境的时候,感受会如何。现象学角度上,你还是和那个人有异,但是在心理角度上,你和那个人同在,面对着一样的逆境。从这个角度上,你可以意识到目标的经历,因为你和他共同度过这个不幸。它的糟,从这个共同的人际现象学观点,现在对你明显的揭示出来。

3.  Suspend, temporarily, your own considered judgments and critiques
3. 暂停你经过考虑的批判

Pronouncements and clichés about getting over it and moving on will not bring you into proximity with the subjective world of the target. You will not feel the pain or distress; or the tension in your own muscles.  To do this you must dispense with your own analyses and criticisms; and you must not focus on how to fix things.  In this regard, empathy is anti-pragmatic.  If you approach the target with an eye toward fixing what is wrong, then you will not share in the experience of what is (or appears to be) wrong.  You will miss the opportunity to empathize.  Moreover, people who are suffering may not even want their confidents to help fix anything—at least not just yet.  They may simply want someone to know what they are going through.  Fixing the problem can come later after empathy has helped to establish rapport and trust.
光是说出宣言,或者关于“恢复过来,继续走下去”的陈词滥调,不会让你接近目标的主观世界。你不会感受到痛楚或苦难,或者肌肉的紧绷。如果要如此感受,就得先摒除你的分析与批判,你也不能专注于解决问题。在这方面,同理心是反实际的。如果你面对目标的时候一心只想解决问题,你就不会和他共同感受到问题的真正或主观的感受。你会错过和他产生同理心的机会。况且,承受苦痛的人甚至不要听他们倾诉的人帮忙解决任何问题,至少暂时还不需要。他们可能只是要一个人知道他们的经历。解决问题,可以在同理心建立了密切关系和信任之后才进行。

This does not mean that you must agree with or accept the perspective of the target or her value assessments; nevertheless, in the process of empathizing, you must dispense with your own ratings, analyses, evaluations, and critiques in order to gain subjective access to the subjective world of the target.  Of course, this may be very difficult if the target’s subjective world is perverse or evil.  This is why most of us lack empathy for child molesters and mass murderers.
这不代表你必须同意或接受你的目标的观点或价值评估。尽管如此,在产生同理心的过程中,你必须摒除你自己的评价、分析、评估,以便从主观角度看到目标的主观世界。当然,如果目标的主观世界变态或邪恶的话,这可能会很困难。这就是为什么我们大多数的人对非礼儿童或集体谋杀的人没有任何同理心。

4.  Connect with the target
4. 和目标建立连接关系

Suspending your own value judgments, while putting yourself in the subjective shoes of the target, is essential to empathizing.  This mental approach is what feminist psychologist Blythe Clinche calls “connected knowing(link is external).”  Clinche states:
暂停的价值判断,同时将自己设于目标的主观角度,是产生同理心的必要条件。这种心理上的做法,被女权主义心理学家Blythe Clinche 称为“连接性的认识”(connected knowing)。Clinche 说:

The heart of connected knowing is imaginative attachment: trying  to get behind the other person's eyes and "look at it from that person's point of view." ...You must suspend your disbelief, put your own views aside, try to see the logic in the idea.  You need not ultimately agree with it.  But while you are entertaining it you must..."say yes to it." You must empathize with it, feel with and think with the person who created it.
连接性的认识的中心概念是想象性地依附,意即:从对方的眼中,以他的观点看待事物。……你必须暂停你的怀疑,把自己的观点置于一边,并尝试理解个中的逻辑。你最终不需要同意他的想法,但是你在处理的当下,就必须……“给予承认”。你要对这个想法有同理心,并且跟产生这个想法的人感同身受、一同思想。

To gain such knowledge you must therefore bust your gut to see the truth in what the target is saying. “I can see how hard it has been for you to get over your ex; how much you still love her; I can appreciate how much you want to be back together and how the thought of her being with someone else is so hurtful.” Here you are resonating with the values of the target.  These values—unrequited love, jealousy, forlornness, and sense of disempowerment-- are shared human values.  As such, you can “connect,” at a human level,” with the target by sharing in these values.  
要取得这样的知识,就要费尽心思,以便看得到目标所说的话当中的真相。“我看得到你从你和旧爱的关系恢复过来是那么的难,也知道你还是那么爱她;我感受得到你多么渴望再和她在一起,想到她和别人在一起,让你那么心痛。”这就是在和目标的价值观产生共鸣。这些价值观,即一厢情愿的爱、妒忌、绝望、权利被剥夺感,都是人类共同的价值观。因此,你可以通过共同采纳这些价值观,和对方建立一种连接的关系。

This contrasts what Clinche calls “separate knowing,” which approaches the target with doubt and incredulity in order to disprove what he is saying. “I don’t see how you can still love her after what she has done to you. What you need now is to get a good lawyer so that she doesn’t take you to the cleaners.” In taking the latter approach, you will not empathize; you will not get inside the subjective world of the target; you will instead analyze, critique, and dissect it from the outside. You will also probably alienate the other, who will, in turn, not want to disclose private, personal, and intimate details of his subjective life. However, in taking the former approach—that of connected knowing—you will gain access to the subjective world of the target because you will think and feel as if it were your subjective world.  At the end of the day, you may not accept the target’s thinking; however, you will have succeeded in exploring the details of such, and will have therefore attained a more enlightened perspective from which to analyze, critique, and offer advice or counsel.
这和Clinche 所谓的“分开性的认识”(separate knowing)有区别。“分开性的认识”,意思是面对目标的时候心存怀疑,以便反驳他所说的话。“我不能想象她这么对你,你还能那么爱她。你现在需要的是一位好的律师,以防她把你的钱给夺走。”你若是采取后者,你不是产生同理心;你无法进入目标的主观世界,反而是从外面分析、批评、剖析他的经历。你可能也会使他疏远你,也反过来使他不愿和你透露他的主观生活最私人、亲密的细节。但是,若是采取前者,即连接性的认识,你将能够进入目标的主观世界,因为你会如同这是自己的主观世界而思想、感受。最终,你或许不会接受目标的想法,但是你会成功地探索其细节,因而得到一个更有启发的观点,让你从中能分析、批评事物,并且提供建议或忠告。

Let me emphasize that separate and connected knowing are methodological approaches to knowing.  As such, they each have value in their appropriate contexts.  Separate knowing uses techniques such as devil’s advocate and logical refutation.  Its primary vehicle is logical argument.  As such it is appropriate for engaging in critical thinking.  In contrast, connected knowing is appropriate for empathizing.  Its main vehicle is not argument but rather story telling.  As Clinche expresses it,
我要强调的是,分开性和连接性的认识,都是认识的方法,因此它们在适当的场合中,各有它们的价值。分开性的认识利用的手法,包括魔鬼代言人和逻辑驳斥。它的主要媒介是逻辑性的辩论。因此,它运用于进行批判性思维,是恰当不过了。相反地,连接性的认识,适于产生同理心。他的主要媒介不是辩论,而是说故事。就如Clinche 所说:

Rather than trying to evaluate the perspective she is examining, she tries to understand it.  Rather than asking, "Is it right?" she asks, "What does it mean?" When she asks, "Why do you think that?" she means, "What in your experience led you to that position?" and not "What evidence do you have to back that up?" She is looking for the story behind the idea. The voice of separate knowing is argument; the voice of connected knowing is narration.
她不是试着去评估她所观察的角度,而是试着去理解它。她不是问:“这是对的吗?”,而是在问:“它的意义是什么?”她问说:“你为什么这么想?”,意思是:“你经历了什么,让你采取那种立场?”,而不是:“你有什么证据证明此事?”她寻找的是概念背后的故事。分开性的认识的声音是辩论;连接性的认识的声音是叙述。

Thus, to empathize, you should ask the target questions that facilitate the telling of a story.  Open-ended questions like “What do you mean when you say you are a failure?” “Can you tell me more about how you felt when you were left out of the wedding party?” “What did she say when you told her how you felt?” do not judge or challenge what is being claimed; rather they prompt targets to develop their narratives in order to understand them better.
因此,要有同理心,就要向目标发问能促进说故事的一些问题。利用开放式的问题,如:“你说你是失败者,这是什么意思?”,“你没被邀请参加婚礼舞会,可以说说你的感受吗?”,“你告诉她你的感受的时候,她说了什么?”,不会批判或挑战对方所声称的事,相反地,它会促使目标发展他们的叙述,以便更好地理解他们。

5. Use Reflection
5. 利用反射

Notice that the latter questions are open-ended, meaning that they cannot be answered with a yes or no.  Such questions accordingly facilitate dialogue and therefore help to foster understanding.  Additionally, a device that can further promote empathic understanding is that known as reflection.  First introduced by psychologist Carl Rogers as a way to express empathetic understanding in the context of counseling, reflection involves attempting to clarify what another is saying by reflecting (not parroting) back what a target is thinking or feeling.  “It sounds like you are feeling very disappointed by not having gotten a raise,” "So, it appears that you are thinking that others are negatively judging you when you make a mistake."  Such questions not only help to facilitate the target’s development of her narrative as well demonstrate that she is being heard; they also help to engage one as a partner in exploring the subjective life of the target, thereby promoting greater clarity and understanding of the narrative.  This can increase the potential for “connecting” and “getting inside” this subjective world rather than seeing it from an external point of view.
请注意到,最后这几个问题属于开放式,意思是它们不能以“是”或“非”来回答。这类问题因此促进对话,也帮助建立理解。另外,一个能更深一层地促进同理心的理解是一种称为“反射”的技巧。反射首先被心理学家CarlRogers 提倡为辅导中表达同理性理解的一个方式。反射,是将目标的想法或感受,以反射(非重复)的方式再说给目标听,以澄清对方所说的话。“听起来像是你没得到加薪,所以感到很失望。”“看起来像是你犯错的时候,你觉得被别人在负面地批判你。”这类问题不只会帮助目标促进她的叙述的发展,也向她表现出她的话已被听到。它们也帮助问者和目标建立伙伴的关系,以便探索目标的主观世界,从而促进双方对目标的叙述更清楚的理解。这会增加连接与进入这个主观世界的潜力,而不是从外在观点看待它。

6.  Listen to the Target
6. 聆听目标

Reflection aims at enhancing the target’s own understanding (as well as the understanding of the person who is reflecting) by keying into deeper meanings and implications embedded in the target’s narrative.  It is good if it does just that and poor if it does not add anything to what the target has already said.  So saying “It sounds like you don’t like your father” to one who has just said “I hate that son-of-a-bitch!” brings nothing to the table, either cognitively or emotionally.  At most it is likely to be greeted with a “No duh.” In contrast, the response, “It sounds like you feel your father was not there for you when you needed him” could open up new avenues for expanding the narrative.  Indeed, even if the reflection is erroneous, it could still help to clarify things.  But too many inaccurate reflections can also destroy the prospects for empathizing with the target.  Listening carefully to the target’s narrative is accordingly essential in producing useful reflections; for it is only by “active” listening (which includes asking open-ended questions as mentioned) that you are most likely to see inside the subjective world so as to capture deeper meanings and implications of what the target is saying.  So, if you are in a habit of talking at or lecturing others, instead of listening to them, you are not likely to be empathetic, unless you make a concerted effort to overcome this habit.
反射的目的,是通过融入目标的叙述中嵌入的更深一层的含义,来加强目标自己(以及反射者)对于叙述的理解。如果反射办得到,那就是好事;如果反射无法为目标已说的话增添任何事物,反射就欠佳了。因此,目标如果说:“我讨厌那个混蛋!”,而你接着说:“听起来你不喜欢你的父亲”,等于是在认知或情感方面都没有为谈话带来新的事物。它最多只会迎来一句“不然咧?”。相反地,“听起来像是你感到你的父亲在你需要他的时候却不在”,可能会开发新的途径来扩大叙述。的确,即使反射是错误的,也可以帮助澄清事物。不过,太多不准确的反射,可能会造成对目标产生同理心的前景被毁灭。因此,若要作出有用的反射,仔细聆听目标的叙述是必要的,因为只有通过积极的聆听(包括之前提到的发问开放式的问题),才最有可能窥进目标的主观世界,以捕捉到目标的话中的深层含义。所以,如果你习惯上会对别人唠叨或训话,而不是聆听他们,那你可能不会有同理心,除非你尽心尽力克服这个习惯。

7.  Use self-disclosure as appropriate
7. 适当地使用自我披露

One way to not listen carefully is to spend your time talking about yourself. Indeed, others are not likely to open up and share their private subjective worlds with you if they have little opportunity to discuss themselves and think that you are more interested in yourself than them. Nevertheless, self-disclosure can be a useful and powerful way of connecting with shared values when it is relevant and not excessive. Indeed, self-disclosure that brings your own subjective world in proximity to that of the target’s can also embellish and enhance empathy. “I remember when my father told me I would never amount to anything; I know how bad it made me feel!” Here, self-disclosure of your own experiences can help to illuminate the target’s anguish over having been rejected by his father. It can promote resonance between you and the target through expression of shared experiential encounters that engender shared, interpretations, interests, and values.
不仔细聆听的一个方法,就是花时间说你自己的事。的确,如果别人很少有机会谈论自己,并且认为你对自己比对他们更有兴趣,他们就比较不会很开放地跟你分享他们的私人主观世界。尽管如此,自我披露,若和叙述有关联,又不过量的话,可以是跟共同价值观连接的有用,并且强有力的的方法。的确,自我披露如果能够将你自己的主观世界接近目标的主观世界,也能点缀与加强同理心。“我记得我爸爸告诉我说,我永远不会有出息。我知道我的感受有多糟!”自我披露自己的经历,可以强调目标对于被父亲抛弃的痛苦。它可以通过表达出涉及共同的理解、利益与价值观的共同经历,促进你和目标之间的共鸣。

8.  Properly distance yourself to and from the target’s subjective world
8. 在自己和目标的主观世界之间,保持适当的距离

Aristotle admonished us to seek “the golden mean” between excess and deficiency in matters related to the passions.  For example, moral virtues such as courage avoid the extremes between cowardice and foolishness; friendliness avoids the extremes of rudeness and flattery; and temperance of insensibility and self-indulgence.  Similarly, as a moral virtue, empathy can be seen as a mean between two extremes: that of being too distant from the subjective world of the target and too close to it.  Indeed, if you are preoccupied with your own personal life issues then you are not likely to get close enough to the subjective world of the target to empathize with the target about her issues.  On the other hand, if you become too personally involved in that subjective world, you will lose the Rogerian "as if"—thereby eviscerating the distinction between yourself and the other. Thus, the key to resonating with the target’s subjective world is to avoid both extremes.  Say you have gone through a messy divorce and are now listening to a friend who is going through a similar divorce.  If you begin to see your friend’s narrative as that of your own and begin to project your own emotions of anguish onto it, then your friend’s subjective world becomes your own; you no longer have any ability to constructively relate to your friend’s plight because it is your own.  You are then lost in that world, ineptly drowning in it along with your friend.  On the other hand, if you come at your friend’s plight with a cold “get over it” and accordingly fail to connect with your friend, then you are too far from your friend’s subjective world to be of much use.  So what is the proper distance and how do you get there?
亚里士多德曾告诫我们,在有关情感上的事物中,要在过量与缺乏之间寻找“中庸之道”。比方说,道德上的美德,如勇气,避开了胆怯与愚蠢这两个极端;友善,避开了无礼与奉承这两个极端;自律,避开了麻木和自我放纵这两个极端。相同地,作为一个道德上的美德,同理心也可以被视为两个极端之间的平衡:离目标的主观世界太远,以及离它太近。的确,如果你把注意力集中在自己生命中的问题上,你不太可能与目标的主观世界够接近,让你对目标的问题感到同理心。另一方面,如果你太过投入于那个主观世界,你会失去Rogers 所谓的“如同”,因而模糊了你和对方之间的区分。因此,跟目标的主观世界产生共鸣的关键,是避开这两个极端。假设你刚经历一次混乱的离婚,现在正聆听着一位朋友,这位朋友也正经历相同的离婚。如果你开始将你的朋友的叙述视为自己的叙述,又开始把自己的悲痛情绪投射到他的叙述上,你的朋友的主观世界就变成了你自己的主观世界,你已经不再能够有建设性地理解你的朋友的处境,因为他/她的处境已经成为你的处境。你就会迷失在那个世界中,并且无能地和你的朋友一起淹没在其中。另一方面,如果你面对你的朋友的处境,以一句冷漠的“克服它吧”来作回应,因而无法和你的朋友建立连接关系,你就是离你的朋友的主观世界太远,不可能有所作为。那么,什么才是正确的距离,而且要如何达到这个距离?

Here an analogy may prove useful.  When you experience a work of art as art, you must take the right perspective.  You can’t be too personally involved in it and you can’t be too impersonally related to it.  Aesthetician Edward Bullough refers to this balance of personal involvement as “psychical distance(link is external)” and maintains that what is “both in appreciation and production, most desirable is the utmost decrease of Distance without its disappearance.”  By this he means that both consumers of art as well as the artists themselves must strive to get as close personally to the object or process of art up to the point where getting any more personally involved would destroy their ability to see the object or process as distinct from their own personal life situation.  For example, he tells us to imagine a life-threatening fog at sea, and then, at that point just before we are overcome by terror, we put the phenomenon “out of gear with our practical, actual self; by allowing it to stand outside the context of our personal needs and ends - in short, by looking at it 'objectively,' …”  So that the veil surrounding you, “blurring the outline of things and distorting their shapes into weird grotesqueness” becomes a thing of beauty rather than something about to devour and annihilate you.  Such an objectifying of the emotional experience is not, however, depersonalized. “Distance,” states Bullough, “does not imply an impersonal, purely intellectually interested relation…On the contrary, it describes a personal relation, often highly emotionally coloured, but of a peculiar character. Its peculiarity lies in that the personal character of the relation has been, so to speak, filtered.”
我们在这里用一个比喻,可能会有用处。当你将一个艺术作品以艺术来看待的时候,你必须采取正确的角度。你不能太过参与其中,也不能太过客观地看待它。美学家Edward Bullough 将这种个人参与的平衡称为“心理距离”(psychical distance),并且主张,“欣赏和制作两方面最可取的事物,就是在没有消失的情况下尽量保持距离。”他的意思是:艺术的消费者和艺术家本身必须努力亲自靠近艺术品或艺术过程,但又不太过于靠近,以致他们无法将艺术品或艺术过程视为跟他们自身生活中的状况分离。他举例说明,他叫我们想象一次海上危胁生命的雾。在我们被恐惧压倒的那一刻之前,我们将这个现象“与我们实际、真实的自我脱离关系,方法是将它置于我们的个人需求与目的之外,总之,就是‘客观’地看待它。”这样,笼罩着你的纱,虽然将事物的轮廓模糊,并将它们的形状扭曲成怪诞的东西,但是它仍然成为了美景,而不是会将你吞噬、消灭的事物。可是,这种情感经历的客观化,并不非人性化。Bullough 说:“距离不意味着一种与人分离的、纯粹知性上的关系……相反的,它形容的是一个私人的关系,它往往高度情绪激昂,但又个性奇特。这个关系的奇特性,在于它的私人特征已经被所谓的“过滤”了。

As applied to empathetic distance, the same filter applies.  For example, your adult child tells you how she is unhappily married and how her husband is self-centered and insensitive; and as she begins to develop her narrative you catch yourself becoming increasingly irate and about to tell her to divorce the “asshole.” But, instead, you change your perspective to resonate with a deeper appreciation for your child’s feelings—her sense of hopelessness, forlornness, neglect, and disillusionment. You thus transform your outrage, away from its practical preoccupation, to focus on and connect with the shared human values that are at stake.  As such, the experience remains highly emotionally charged, but the practical distractions—the condemnation and judgment about how to fix the problem are “filtered out.”
至于同理心的距离,同样的过滤也适用。比方说,你的成年女儿告诉你说她的婚姻不愉快,她的丈夫有多么以自我为中心、又有多么不敏感。正当她开始叙述的时候,你发觉到自己逐渐生气,正要叫她和那个“混蛋”离婚。但是,你反而改变自己的角度,更深地意识到了你的女儿的感受,她的绝望、被忽略、梦想幻灭的感觉,对之产生共鸣。你因此转变你的愤怒,远离实际的专注,以便把注意力放在跟所涉及的人类的共同价值观连接。因此,这个经历虽然让人高度情绪激昂,但是实际上让人分心的事,也就是批判与解决问题的评估,已经被过滤出来了。

9.  Practice it!
9. 要练习!

Of course, when strong emotions are kindled it is not always easy to apply such a filter, but this is precisely why empathy takes practice and perseverance in order to cultivate the right habit.  It is also why empathy is a virtue or excellence of being human.
当然,强烈的情绪一旦被引发,要如此过滤谈何容易。不过,这就是为什么同理心需要练习和毅力,才能培养正确的习惯。这也是为什么同理心是作为人类的美德或优势。

So I urge you to practice applying these guidelines when a friend, family member, significant other, colleague, client, or other relationship of yours just wants someone with whom to talk.  Since it is not hard to find such contexts in the mainstream of life, it is easy enough to find occasion to practice empathizing.  Practice won’t make you perfect because nobody’s perfect; but it can, indeed, help to make you more empathetic.  And that can, in turn, be of inestimable value in improving the quality of your interpersonal relationships.
所以我鼓励你,当一位朋友、家人、伴侣、同事、客户或者其他和你有关系的人只是想和你倾诉的时候,就要练习应用这几条方针。生命的主流当中,不难找出这样的场合,所以要找机会练习同理心,也会非常容易。练习不能造就完美,因为没有人是完美的。但是它的确会帮助你变得更具同理心,也会反过来对于改善你的人际关系有不可估量的价值。

【原文来源:psychologytoday.com 作者: Elliot D. Cohen Ph.D. 翻译来源:yeeyan.org  译者:搬那度】



顶一下
(2)
100%
踩一下
(0)
0%
手机上普特 m.putclub.com 手机上普特
[责任编辑:katherine]
------分隔线----------------------------
发表评论 查看所有评论
请自觉遵守互联网政策法规,严禁发布色情、暴力、反动的言论。
评价:
表情:
用户名: 密码: 验证码:
  • 推荐文章
  • 资料下载
  • 讲座录音
普特英语手机网站
用手机浏览器输入m.putclub.com进入普特手机网站学习
查看更多手机学习APP>>