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英语写作:美国学生的写作套路 你知道吗

2016-08-25    来源:沪江英语    【      美国外教 在线口语培训

As you've probably noticed, essay writing assignments can pop up in any class.Any time you have to write anessay, you should begin with a frame based on the parts below.

可能你有注意过,任何一门课都可能出现写作任务。每次写作你都可以采用下面提供的框架。

Introduction

导言

The introduction is the first paragraph in your essay, and it should accomplish a few specific goals.

导言是文章的首段,应达到一下几个目的。

英文写作

1. Capture the reader's interest.

吸引读者兴趣

It's a good idea to start your essay with a really interesting statement, in order to pique the reader's interest.

要吸引读者的兴趣,开头采用一段有趣的陈述是个好方法。

Avoid starting out with a boring line like this:

但要避免无聊的行文,比如:

"In this essay I will explain why Rosa Parks was an important figure."

“在这篇文章里,我要阐明为何罗莎·帕克斯是个伟人。”

Instead, try something with a bit of a surprise factor, like this statement:

相反,可以试着引用让人惊讶的事情,比如:

"A Michigan museum recently paid $492,000 for an old, dilapidated bus from Montgomery, Alabama."

“最近,密歇根的一家博物馆话费4.92万美元从亚拉巴马州蒙哥马利市购进了一辆老旧的公交车。”

The second sentence sounds much more interesting, doesn't it? It would encourage most people to keep on reading.

相比之下第二句话更吸引人,是吧?这会吸引大多数读者往下读。

2. Introduce the topic.

介绍话题

The next few sentences should explain your first statement, and prepare the reader for your thesis statement.

接下来的几句话应该开始陈述,让读者接受你的论点。

"The old yellow bus was reported to be the very one that sparked the civil rights movement, when a young woman named Rosa Parks..."

“据说,正是这辆老旧的黄色公交车点燃了民权运动的火花,当时,车上有一位名叫罗莎·帕克斯的年轻女性乘客……”

3. Make a claim or express your opinion in a thesis sentence.

用中心句表达观点

At the end of your introductory paragraph, you will place a powerful thesis statement. Your thesis sentence should provide your specific assertion and convey a clear point of view.

在导言段的结尾处,你要表明有力的中心论点。中心论点应该是具体、明确的判断。

"In refusing to surrender her seat to a white man, Rosa Parks inspired a freedom movement that lives on, even today."

“罗莎·帕克斯拒绝向白人让座,拉开了自由运动的序幕,而这场运动一直延续至今。”

Body

主体

The body of the essay will include three paragraphs (if this is a five-paragraph essay), each limited to one main idea that supports your thesis. You should state your idea, then back it up with two or three sentences of evidence or examples.

文章的主题应该包含三个段落(如果这是一篇五段论文章的话),每一段都有一个中心思想来支持文章的中心论点。你要阐述观点,再用三两句话摆出证据,或举出例子。

Example of a main idea:

中心思想举例:

"It took incredible courage for an African American woman to make such a bold stance in 1955 Alabama."

“在1995年的亚拉巴马,一位黑人女性要做出如此的举动需要十足的勇气。”

Offer evidence to support this statement:

提供证据支撑:

"This act took place in an era when African Americans could be arrested and face severe retribution for committing the most trivial acts of defiance."

“在那个的年代,美国黑人做出的任意微小的反抗都可能导致逮捕以及严重的惩罚。”

Include a few more supporting statements with further evidence, then use transition words to lead to the paragraph that follows.  All of your body paragraphs should follow the pattern of statement, supporting ideas, and transition statement.

再进一步阐述证据支撑论点以后,就要用一些过渡词衔接到下一段。主体部分的所有段落都应遵循这一模式:论点、证据支撑、过渡。

Words to use as you transition from one paragraph to another:

过渡词举例:

moreover furthermore 此外

in fact 事实上

on the whole总体来看

as a result结果是

simply put简单地说

for this reason因此

similarly likewise同样的

it follows that接着

naturally自然地

by comparison相反

surely当然

yet但是

The fifth paragraph of your five-paragraph essay will be your conclusion.

五段论的第五段要做总结。

Conclusion

总结

The final paragraph will summarize your main points and re-assert your main claim. It should point out your main points, but should not repeat specific examples. Once you complete the first draft of your essay, it's a good idea to re-visit the thesis statement in your first paragraph. Read your essay to see if it flows well.

最后一段用来总结你的观点,重新证实你的中心论点。你要指出中心论点,但不用举例证明。写完初稿后,重新浏览一遍首段中提出的中心论点是个好方法。再通读一遍文章,看看行文是否流畅。



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