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能源价格是乌克兰危机的重要因素

2014-05-26    来源:voanews    【      美国外教 在线口语培训

Russia's decision to intervene in Ukraine has caused a diplomatic and military crisis. But it has also sparked an economic and energy crisis, as Russia sharply increased the price of natural gas it exports to the country and Ukraine's interim leaders have been scrambling to find new and cheaper sources.
俄罗斯对乌克兰的干预不仅造成外交和军事危机,还使乌克兰在经济和能源方面面临危机。俄罗斯大幅度提高了输往乌克兰的天然气价格。乌克兰临时政府的官员四处寻找更为廉价的新的能源来源。

Ukraine runs on natural gas, and its energy-inefficient homes and factories use a lot of it.
乌克兰的运转靠的是天然气。在这个能源不足的国家,家庭和工厂消耗着大量的天然气。

The gas comes from Russia, until recently at a bargain price.
直到不久前,它还能以折扣价格购买俄罗斯的天然气。

But that changed when Ukrainians ousted their pro-Russian president in February. Russia raised the price by 40 percent.
但是,当乌克兰人今年2月把亲俄罗斯总统赶下台后,俄罗斯把天然气价格调涨了百分之40。

Ukraine's new leaders have a dilemma, says energy market expert Pierre Noel of the London-based International Institute for Strategic Studies.
总部在伦敦的国际战略研究所的能源市场专家皮埃尔·诺埃尔说,乌克兰新领导人面临两难境地。

"They now face the very difficult choice, perhaps the impossible choice, of having to choose between cheap gas and political submission to Russia, or expensive gas as the price to pay for their political independence," he said.
诺埃尔说:“他们现在面临相当困难的选择,或许根本无法在为廉价天然气在政治上顺从俄罗斯,以及为了政治独立而支付昂贵天然气价格之间做出选择。

But Noel says Ukraine had been extracting a steep discount from Russia for decades because it is home to the only gas pipeline to Russia's huge market in Western Europe, and that was going to end anyway.
但是诺埃尔表示,过去几十年乌克兰一直以高折扣价支付俄罗斯天然气,因为俄罗斯输往西欧巨大市场的唯一的天然气管道经由乌克兰。

Russia and its customers have been working for years to build two new pipelines that will soon bypass Ukraine, eliminating the country's leverage and putting Russia in a position to charge Ukraine a premium.
俄罗斯和它的客户为修建两条新输气管道已经合作多年。新的管道将避开乌克兰,消除它在能源价格上讨价还价的条件,那样将使俄罗斯能够以高价将天然气卖给乌克兰。

That is bad news for consumers and business owners, like Kyiv restaurateur Yuri Gelfat.
这对于消费者和业主们是个坏消息。基辅一家餐馆的老板尤里·吉尔法特就是其中之一。

"The price of gas will impact all of us," he said. "It affects heating, hot water. Higher utility payments will mean we have to increase our prices."
吉尔法特说:“天然气价格会影响到我们,会影响到取暖和热水。水电费价格上涨就意味着我们不得不提高菜价。”

That may be one of the costs of energy independence.
那或许就是能源独立要付出的代价之一。

At his nearby clothing store, Ruslan Pavlyuk takes a broader view, calling for increased efficiency and conservation, plus one other thing.
餐馆附近一家服装店的业主鲁斯兰·帕夫柳克则从更大的方面着眼,呼吁提高能效和储备,以及为未来而付出。

"Ukrainians have to stop crying, tighten our belts and understand that we have more fighting to do for our future," he said.
帕夫柳克说:“乌克兰人必须停止哭泣,勒紧腰带,并且要明白,为了我们的将来,我们还要做出更多努力。”

Much of the belt tightening will fall on energy-wasteful Ukrainian factories and their workers, largely in the east of the country, where pro-Russian sentiment is the strongest.
能源浪费严重的乌克兰工厂和工人则需要在更大程度上勒紧腰带。这些工厂大多数位于亲俄罗斯情绪最强烈的的东部地区。

Pierre Noel says that will make it difficult for Ukraine to forge a national consensus to make the kind of painful reforms that central European countries have made.
皮埃尔·诺埃尔说,那样就令乌克兰难以就必要但痛苦的改革方面达成全国性的共识。

"Ukraine is fundamentally split along political and economic lines between a part of the country that may be able and willing to go through that, and a part of the country that simply has no interest, no willingness, and simply will not do it," Noel said.
诺埃尔说:“乌克兰从政治和经济上有着根本性的分歧。它的一部分或许愿意承受,另一部分则根本没有兴趣和意愿,总之不会去做。”

Noel says a political deal that enables the east to remain economically tied to Russia could ease the problem, and give Russia the foothold in Ukraine it appears to want, without further compromising Ukraine's sovereignty.
诺埃尔说,如果能达成一个政治上的交易,使得东部在经济上保持与俄罗斯的联系,将可能缓解这个问题,也会让俄罗斯得到它显然想要的对乌克兰的影响力。



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