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英语新闻:苏格兰公投之后对其他国家的影响

2014-09-28    来源:chinadaily    【      美国外教 在线口语培训

How Scotland's 'No' vote resonates around the world

Scotland's historic referendum on independence has resonated across the world, with many countries watching its outcome closely.
苏格兰历史性的独立公投引起了全世界人的关注,许多国家密切关注其结果。

BBC correspondents in Australia, Canada, India, Spain, Italy, Germany, and Romania take a look at how Scotland's "No" vote has been received and what it means for the countries they cover.
BBC在澳大利亚、加拿大、印度、西班牙、意大利、德国以及罗马尼亚的记者观察这些国家如何看待苏格兰拒绝独立以及该结果对他们所在国家的影响。

Spain
- Tom Burridge
西班牙
——汤姆•伯里奇

Catalonia is probably the place outside of the UK where Scotland's referendum had, and still has, most resonance.
Why? Because the Catalan government plans a Scottish-style vote on independence on 9 November, even though the Spanish government has called it "illegal".
Waking up on Friday, pro-independence Catalans, at least privately, cannot fail to be disappointed.
The Catalan president, who is expected to get the green light from the regional parliament in Barcelona to hold a similar vote, admitted to me last week that he wanted a "Yes" in Scotland to prove that there could be a successful referendum for independence in part of a fellow EU country.
Catalonia's Foreign Secretary (a title that would raise many Spanish eyebrows), Roger Albinyana, told me that he was "not at all disappointed".
He is keen to point out that David Cameron allowed the Scottish vote. Mariano Rajoy will never give his approval to a vote here in Catalonia.
And for pro-independence Catalans Scotland was a "democratic success", a nation exercising "their right to vote".
However Catalans who passionately want Catalonia to remain part of Spain say the situation here is more complicated than, in the words of one activist, a "black-and-white, yes-no" decision.
加泰罗尼亚(Catalonia)恐怕是除英国外对此最有共鸣的地方了,现在仍然如此。
为什么呢?因为加泰罗尼亚政府准备在11月9日进行一次苏格兰式独立公投,尽管西班牙政府将此举列为“非法”。
在周五早上醒来之后,那些赞成独立的加泰罗尼亚人至少在私下显得十分失望。
加泰罗尼亚的主席希望他能得到他们在巴塞罗那(Barcelona)议会的许可,进行一次类似的公投,他上周对我说,他希望苏格兰能够独立,以此来证明在欧盟内能够有一次成功的独立公投。
加泰罗尼亚的外交部长(这个头衔估计会让很多西班牙人不高兴)罗杰•艾尔宾亚纳(Roger Albinyana)告诉我“对此结果,他根本不失望”。
他尖锐的指出,戴维•卡梅伦(David Cameron)允许苏格兰进行公投,但马里亚诺•拉霍伊(Mariano Rajoy,西班牙首相)可绝对不会允许加泰罗尼亚进行公投。
对那些倾向独立的加泰罗尼亚人来说,苏格兰公投是“民主胜利”,国家行使了“他们的投票权”。
但那些反对加泰罗尼亚独立的民众则认为当地的形势更加复杂,用一位激进分子的话来说就是“这不是黑与白,独立不独立”的问题。

Canada
- Lee Carter
加拿大
——李•卡特(Lee Carter)

The victory for the "No" vote will please many of Canada's editorial writers, most of whom came down firmly on the side of Scotland staying with the union.
As the vote got closer, many other stories were gently shoved aside by major TV news networks, which had correspondents on the ground in Scotland providing minute-by-minute results. The interest was not surprising.
Nearly five million Canadians identify themselves as Scottish. And Scots have had a huge impact on Canadian culture and history.
Many of those who migrated to Nova Scotia (New Scotland) did so because they were forced off their land. Opinion in some of the communities there tilted towards the Yes campaign.
The Scottish debate seemed to have much more traction in the French-speaking province of Quebec. Referendums on separation from Canada were twice held there (1980 and 1995) and twice rejected, albeit by an extremely narrow margin in 1995.
A group of Quebec "sovereigntists" who'd made the trip to Scotland to watch and learn from the process said they were hugely impressed by the precision and clarity of the "Yes" campaign.
But the group's leader, Alexandre Cloutier, admitted that the next referendum in Quebec could be a long way off. In April, the pro-independence Parti Quebecois was swept from power in the province by the federalist Liberals. And support for separation in the province wavers at around 40%.
Group members insist that despite the result, there are still many aspects of the Scottish vote that could inspire a new generation of Quebec separatists.
But weighing into the debate, Quebec's Premier Philippe Couillard said that while Scotland's referendum was an example of the same kind of healthy tension that exists in Quebec, all comparisons after that were "risky".

苏格兰未能独立成功的结果会让很多加拿大的编辑感到开心,他们中的绝大多数人都坚定地支持苏格兰留在联合王国。
随着投票日期的临近,各大电视网络媒体纷纷取消了其他无关节目,安排记者在苏格兰现场进行实时现场报道。有这么大的关注度并不让人惊讶。
有近500万的加拿大人认为自己是苏格兰人的后裔。苏格兰对加拿大的历史与文化也产生了巨大的影响。
许多移居到新斯科舍省(Nova Scotia,新苏格兰)都这么认为,因为他们被迫离开了他们的土地,当地的一些社区倾向于赞成独立。
加拿大魁北克省进行过分别于1980年及1995年进行过两次独立公投。
苏格兰公投的话题似乎在法语区魁北克省吸引力。这里曾举行过两次独立公(1985和1995年),但两次都未能成功,尽管1995年的那次是以极其微弱的劣势失败。
前往苏格兰对公投进行观摩学习的魁北克某“主权主义分子”组织称,他们对苏格兰独立派的严谨和透明印象深刻。
但该组织的领袖亚历山大•克劳迪奇(Alexandre Cloutier)承认,魁北克距离下一次公投还有一段距离。在2014年4月,支持独立的魁北克人党(Parti Quebecois)在省议会选举中惨败给支持联邦政府的自由党人。目前,该省的独立支持率在40%左右。
该组织的人认为,尽管苏格兰没有独立,但苏格兰独立运动的许多方面将鼓舞新一代“魁独”人。
谈及这次争论的独立运动的影响,魁北克总理菲利普•库亚尔(Philippe Couillard)表示,苏格兰为具有同样问题的魁北克局势的健康发展树立了榜样,两者之间的所有比较都是“危险的”。


India
- Andrew North
印度
——安德鲁·诺斯(Andrew North)

Demands for a referendum persist in Kashmir, but the chances of it happening are remote
India's foreign minister didn't know Scotland was considering divorce, until an aide whispered in her ear. A more pressing concern for some Indians was what it meant for the price of Scotch.
There's also been some schadenfreudein the air, watching their former colonial master prepare to "partition" itself.
For many, the idea that the UK was about to give away some of its territory voluntarily - and because the British prime minister himself had allowed a vote - was hard to comprehend.
And if the Scots had voted "Yes", it would have set an uncomfortable precedent in Kashmir. India has never carried out its 1948 promise to hold a referendum there, and Kashmiris were quick to make the comparison with the Scots getting a vote.
So it's not surprising Foreign Minister Sushma Swaraj's initial reaction to the idea the UK could break up was "God forbid". It would have just made things too complicated.

克什米尔(Kashmir)一直在寻求独立,但它独立的机会十分渺茫。
直到助手在耳边低声告知,印度外长才了解到苏格兰打算进行独立公投。而一些印度的民众更关心此事对苏格兰威士忌的价格所产生的影响。
对于自己的前殖民主要“分裂”,一些印度民众对此有些幸灾乐祸。
而对许多人来说,英国志愿放弃自己的领土以及英国首相允许进行独立公投令人难以理解。
如果苏格兰成功独立,这无疑会让克什米尔人如鲠在喉。印度从未践行其在1948年对克什米尔的承诺——允许克什米尔进行独立公投。克什米尔人很快将把自已与获得选票的苏格兰人进行对比。
所以这也不奇怪为什么当印度外长苏什马•斯瓦拉杰(Sushma Swaraj)听到英国可能会分裂说法时,会认为这是“上帝不允许的”。

Germany
- Jenny Hill
德国
——珍妮•希尔(Jenny Hill)

"Scotland stays British!" proclaims Germany's most popular newspaper. For Bild, like every other paper and TV news programme here, there is only one top story this morning - and on the whole only one response.
"I'm hugely relieved," said one politician. "It prevents further fragmentation of Europe."
The government agrees - though the official line is less exuberant.
"We have always respected the fact that this referendum was called and that the central government in London agreed to this. And now we respect the outcome of it as well," said Angela Merkel.
Is she pleased with the result? The German chancellor was coy. "I will not comment on this but just smile."
British Prime Minister David Cameron (R) and German Chancellor Angela Merkel meet during the Nato summit in Newport, South Wales, on 4 September 2014.
German politicians fear a UK referendum on EU membership without Scottish voters could make its exit more likely
Why? Politicians are looking ahead to a possible UK referendum on EU membership. Without Scottish voters, they think Britain's exit from the EU would have been far more likely.
But there are other considerations too. In a leader that ran two days ago, the broadsheet Sueddeutsche Zeitung expressed concern about the economic viability of independence.
On Friday morning the language was somewhat bolder. According to the Frankfurter Allgemeine the nationalists were "promising the moon".
Among ordinary Germans, I've yet to find someone who supported independence.
Take Edgar. Every day he stands on the bank of the river Spree, leans on his stick and shepherds tourists on to his sightseeing boat. "Better together," he told me. "Of course they're better together."

德国最受欢迎的报纸《图片报》(Bild)宣布了“苏格兰留在英国”的消息,与德国国内其他的报纸与电视节目一样,该报纸在头条位置对这一事件进行了报道。
“我深深舒了一口气,”一位政客说道。“这防止了欧洲的进一步分裂。”
政府也持这种看法——虽然官方的立场并没有表现如此欢欣鼓舞。
“我们尊重进行公投的要求,赞赏英国中央政府同意进行公投的态度,我们也尊重最终的结果。”安吉拉•默克尔(Angela Merkel德国总理)说道。
问及她是否对这个结果感到高兴?德国总理的言辞含糊。“我不会对此做出评论,但我会面带微笑。”
德国的政客害怕没有苏格兰人的投票,英国很可能会通过公投退出欧盟。
为什么?政客们预计英国很可能会对是否留在欧盟进行公投。如果没有苏格兰人的投票,他们认为英国很可能将退出欧盟。
他们也有有其他方面的考虑,一位领导人在两天前的南德意志报(Sueddeutsche Zeitung)上发表文章称他们关注经济独立的可行性。
在星期五早上,言语则变得更为大胆。《法兰克福大众报》(Frankfurter Allgemeine)称民族主义分子在作“空头承诺”
在普通德国民众中,我还未发现支持独立的人。
泰德•埃德加(Take Edgar)每天都会拄着拐杖站在施普雷河(River Spree)边,引导游客们登上他的观光船。“最好统一在一起,”他告诉我。“他们当然最后统一在一起。”

Italy
- David Willey
意大利
——大卫•维利(David Willey)

The final result of Scotland's independence referendum missed the early editions of Italy's morning papers, but Italian shares hit new two-year highs at the opening of Milan's stock exchange.
The "spread" between the price of Italian and German 10-year treasury euro bonds hit a three-year low - signifying increased confidence in Italy's financial credibility.
The leading daily Corriere Della Sera's headline ran: "UK remains united but will still change".
Former Prime Minister Enrico Letta tweeted(in Italian): "Scotland has decided. Good for us and for Europe. Now let's not ignore the intolerance and fears which encourage separatists."
"South Tirol is not Italy" - The Scottish referendum serves as an inspiration for German-speaking separatists in Italy's South Tyrol region.
Italy's Northern League separatist party, which dreams of setting up a republic called Padania in the Po River Valley, is currently in the doldrums after losing heavily at the last elections.
Meanwhile a nascent movement for the independence of Venice, in times past a powerful European nation-state, is not taken seriously in Rome.
Newspapers in the German-speaking South Tyrol, which passed to Italy after World War One, said that the Scottish referendum had been an "incredible success" simply because it had been allowed to be held.
Listeners calling in to a leading radio talk show complained that in contrast to what happens in the UK, Italian politicians seem unable to carry out long-desired constitutional changes and electoral reforms.

苏格兰独立公投的结果错过了意大利报纸早间版的印刷时间,但米兰证券交易所开盘时,意大利股票价格创造了两年来的新高。
意大利与德国间为期10年的财政部债券的价格降到了3年来的新低,这表明民众对意大利金融业信用越来越有信心。
意大利发行量最大的《意大利晚邮报》(Corriere Della Sera)的标题为“英国虽然统一,但仍会发生变化”
意大利前总理恩里科•莱塔(Enrico Letta)在推特上表示:“苏格兰已经决定了自己的命运,这对我们和欧盟来说都是好消息。让我们无视一些人的偏狭与担忧,否则这会增涨分裂分子的信心。”
“南蒂罗尔州(South Tirol)不属于意大利”——苏格兰独立公投曾经引发了意大利南蒂罗尔德语区民众的独立情绪。
意大利北方联盟的分离主义政党想要在蒲河流域(Po River Valley)建立一个叫做帕达尼亚(Padania)的国家,然而该政党在近期的选举中遭遇惨败,整个党处在低迷期。
与此同时,为欧洲曾经盛极一时的城邦威尼斯(Venice)进行的独立运动正处在萌芽阶段,但意大利中央政府并未对其重视。
南蒂罗尔德语区在一战后被意大利纳入势力范围,该地区发行的报纸称苏格兰的公投本身就已经是一种“难以置信的成功”,因为英国政府允许其进行公投。
有民众打电话到当地一档热门广播脱口秀抱怨称,与在英国发生的一切相比,意大利的政客似乎没有能力进行渴望已久的宪法修改与选举改革。

Romania
- Nick Thorpe
罗马尼亚
——尼克•索普(Nick Thorpe)

Ethnic Hungarians in Romania's Transylvania region have welcomed the Scottish referendum result.
"This will help our striving for autonomy," said the president of the Szekler National Council, which is campaigning for an autonomous Szeklerland - a region in eastern Transylvania comprising largely Hungarian-speaking territory with roots going back to the Middle Ages.
Szekler National Council is campaigning for an autonomous region in eastern Transylvania
"The world has changed. The Scottish government and parliament will certainly have more autonomy in the future. Romania should learn from this to engage in debate with us, as we are asking for much less than the Scots," Balazs Izsak added.
Approximately 800,000 Hungarians live in the two counties of Hargita and Covasna and a part of Mures county. Until the Treaty of Trianon in 1920, the whole of Transylvania was under Hungarian jurisdiction.
But Hungarians in Romania today are divided over the autonomy efforts, and Romanians on the whole reject any debate about the possibility.
The Democratic Union of Hungarians (UDMR), who form part of the current Romanian government, this week published their own plans for Szekler autonomy, based on the model of Italy's South Tyrol province.
Hungarians hold Hungarian and Transylvanian flags as they take part in a demonstration for the autonomy of Transylvanian territory from Romania in Budapest, Hungary on 27 October 2013.
Leader Hunor Kelemen stressed the difference between the plan and Scotland's referendum.
The number of Hungarians living in Transylvania is falling by about 20,000 each year, and champions of autonomy argue that this is the best way to preserve the Hungarian community.
Ethnic Hungarians also fear a new regionalisation plan for Romania, which would administratively divide their region further.

在罗马尼亚特兰西瓦尼亚(Transylvania)地区的匈牙利族人对苏格兰公投的结果表示欢迎。
“这有助于我们实现自治,”塞克勒人(Szekler)全国委员会的主席说道,该委员会正在寻求在东特兰西瓦尼亚地区实行自治。该地区主要由说匈牙利语的人组成,他们的起源可以追溯至中世纪时期。
塞克勒人全国委员会正在寻求在东特兰西瓦尼亚地区实行自治。
“这个世界已经改变。苏格兰政府与议会在未来肯定会活动更多的自治权。罗马尼亚必须从中学习,与我们进行讨论,我们所要求的要比苏格兰来的少得多。”巴拉日•以萨克(Balazs Izsak)补充道。
约80万的匈牙利人生活在哈尔吉塔县(Hargita)、科瓦斯纳县(Covasna)以及穆列什县(Mures)的部分地区。在1920年特里亚农条约(Treaty of Trianon)之前,整个特兰西瓦尼亚地区都在匈牙利的管辖之下。
如今生活在罗马尼亚的匈牙利对是否争取自治仍存在分歧,而罗马尼亚人拒绝就此事的可能性进行讨论。
在该届政府中占据部分席位的匈牙利人民主联盟(The Democratic Union of Hungarians)在本周出台了他们对塞克勒自治州的计划。该计划以意大利南蒂罗尔省为模板。
领导人胡诺尔•凯莱门(Hunor Kelemen)强调该计划与苏格兰公投之间的不同之处。
生活在特兰西瓦尼亚地区的匈牙利人数量正以每年两万人的速度递减,拥护自治的匈牙利人表示这是保留匈牙利社区最好的办法。
匈牙利人同样担心罗马尼亚新的区域化方案,这会在行政上把他们的地区进行进一步的划分。

Australia
- Jon Donnison
澳大利亚
——乔恩•唐尼森(Jon Donnison)

A substantial proportion of the Australian population has Scottish heritage. As in Scotland, the issue of independence has divided that community.
The "No" victory will be welcomed by Australia's conservative Prime Minister Tony Abbott, a staunch unionist and royalist who was born in London to English parents.
The result has seen the pound strengthen against the Australian dollar as well as a host of other currencies.
The referendum has received widespread coverage here.
There is no real equivalent independence movement here although some in the mineral rich state of Western Australia have argued they should one day break away from Australia as a whole. But such a split is unlikely.

很多澳大利亚人都拥有苏格兰血统,就像在苏格兰一样,人们对该问题有着不同的看法。
澳大利亚保守党总理托尼•阿博特(Tony Abbott)对苏格兰留在英国的结果表示欢迎,出生在伦敦的他是坚定的联合主义者与保皇派。
这一结果将使英镑对澳元及其他货币汇率更加坚挺。
独立公投在这里受到广泛的报道。
在这里没有类似的独立运动,虽然西澳大利亚一些矿产资源丰富的地区声称他们有一天要脱离澳大利亚,但这个事情发生的可能性微乎其微。
 
Analysis
- Bridget Kendall, BBC diplomatic correspondent
分析
——BBC外交记者布里奇特-肯德尔(Bridget Kendall)

The news that Scotland is not going to leave the UK will mean many governments are heaving a sigh of relief.
Some feared that Scottish independence might encourage other separatist movements. Others worried that it would turn the rest of the UK into a weaker and distracted partner.
But has Britain's global standing been affected nonetheless?
There is an argument that the UK, along with the rest of the West, is already in decline - its clout eroded by the rise of emerging giants like China, India, Russia and Brazil.
And the very fact of this referendum shows its power and prestige is on the wane, and its reliability as a partner has been undermined.
There is a worry too that new devolved powers promised to Scotland, and further constitutional change being called for elsewhere in the UK, may mean that the government in London will be too distracted to pull its weight on foreign affairs.

苏格兰没有独立让很多国家松了一口气。
一些国家担心苏格兰的独立可能会鼓舞本国的独立运动。其他的则担心他们与英国的合作,因为独立无疑会削弱英国的国力,并使英国分心。
尽管结果已经揭晓,但英国的国际地位仍受到影响?
现在有一种论调认为英国与西方的其它国家正处在衰退之中,他们的影响力正被崛起的大国像中国、印度、俄罗斯已经巴西所侵蚀。
独立公投的事实也表明了其国力及威望正在减弱,作为一位可靠的合作伙伴可能性也被削弱。
现在也有一种担忧,认为给予苏格兰新承诺的权利,以及英国其他地区要求进一步修改宪法呼声可能会让英国政府心力交瘁,不得不减少其在外交事务上的投入。


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