Russia has listed transsexual and transgender people among those who will no longer qualify for driving licences.
Fetishism, exhibitionism and voyeurism are also included as "mental disorders" now barring people from driving.
The government says it is tightening medical controls for drivers because Russia has too many road accidents.
"Pathological" gambling and compulsive stealing are also on the list. Russian psychiatrists and human rights lawyers have condemned the move.
The announcement follows international complaints about Russian harassment of gay-rights activists.
In 2013 Russia made "promoting non-traditional lifestyles" illegal.
Valery Evtushenko at the Russian Psychiatric Association voiced concern about the driving restrictions, speaking to the BBC Russian Service. He said some people would avoid seeking psychiatric help, fearing a driving ban.
俄罗斯精神病协会（Russian Psychiatric Association ）成员瓦莱丽（Valery Evtushenko ）告诉英国广播公司，他对这一驾驶限制很担忧。很多人为了能继续驾车，会拒绝治疗精神疾病。
The Association of Russian Lawyers for Human Rights called the new law "discriminatory". It said it would demand clarifications from the Russian Constitutional Court and seek support from international human rights organisations.
俄罗斯人权律师协会（The Association of Russian Lawyers for Human Rights ）认为此项规定带有歧视性，希望俄罗斯宪法法院（the Russian Constitutional Court ）对此澄清并寻求国际人权组织支持。