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2017-08-19    来源:FT中文网    【      美国外教 在线口语培训
India and Pakistan are still paying for a botched partition

It was the unenviable task of the English lawyer, Sir Cyril Radcliffe, to carve out the new frontiers of India and Pakistan. In a matter of weeks, he got to decide, with a few strokes of his pen, the destiny of some 400m people: his work casts a long shadow to this day. Deed done, Radcliffe burnt his papers and departed, never to return. WH Auden, in his poem, “Partition”, is scornful: “The next day he sailed for England, where he could quickly forget/The case, as a good lawyer must.”
西里尔•拉德克利夫爵士(Sir Cyril Radcliffe)的差事不值得羡慕,他要划分印度和巴基斯坦的新国界线。在几周之内,他要用寥寥数笔决定大约4亿人的命运:他的工作给今天投下了长长的阴影。做完这件事以后,拉德克利夫烧掉他的底稿,然后离开,永远没有再回来。奥登(WH Auden)在他的诗作《分治》(Partition)中轻蔑地写道:“第二天他坐船前往英格兰,在那里他会迅速忘掉/这件案子,就如一个好律师必须做的。”
The provinces of Punjab and Bengal were torn in two, making deadly enemies of people who spoke the same language. The choice of where to call home came down to religion alone. The British withdrew hastily: a “shameful flight” is how Winston Churchill, no friend of Indian independence, described it.
旁遮普(Punjab)和孟加拉(Bengal)地区都被一分为二,讲同一种语言的人们变成了死敌。选择把哪里称为自己的家园只能由宗教信仰决定。英国人匆匆撤出:一贯反对印度独立的温斯顿•丘吉尔(Winston Churchill)称其为“可耻的逃离”。

No help was at hand — at that point, the UN was still some years away from defining what constituted refugee status. Hindus, Sikhs and Muslims, who had lived side by side for years, slaughtered each other. Partition is estimated to have cost up to a million lives; the tragedy created at least 11m refugees.

It did not end there. Partition divided the subcontinent, then almost immediately afterwards the disputed state of Jammu and Kashmir. Finally, in 1971, Pakistan itself split over its Bengali eastern half, which is now Bangladesh. The war that gave birth to Bangladesh saw the Pakistani army murder some 500,000 of its fellow Muslim citizens in the east.
事情并没有止步于此。分治分裂了次大陆,之后几乎立即又导致争议地区查谟-克什米尔邦(Jammu and Kashmir)分裂。最终,在1971年,巴基斯坦本身也发生了分裂,东翼的孟加拉地区脱离,成为今天的孟加拉国。在那场最终使孟加拉国诞生的战争中,巴基斯坦军队杀死了东部的约50万穆斯林同胞。

If only wiser and cooler heads had prevailed 70 years ago, partition would have been avoided. It has proved a catastrophe — in lives lost, the millions wasted in military confrontation, not to mention the collective exhaustion induced by decades of mutual antipathy. The architects of this disaster imagined, rather naively, a peaceful coexistence rather than today’s deadly rivalry. Pakistan’s founder, Muhammad Ali Jinnah, dreamt of a secular state, a far cry from the Islamic and sectarian nation that exists today. India’s leader, Jawaharlal Nehru, envisioned a pluralist and tolerant India, rather than the Hindu nationalist fantasies gripping parts of the country today.
如果70年前由更明智和冷静的人占了上风,分治本可避免。生灵涂炭、军事对峙所浪费的庞大资源、更不必提几十年相互仇视引起的集体疲惫——这些都已证明分治是一场浩劫。这场灾难的缔造者天真地想象,各方能够和平共处,而不是变成今天这样的死敌。巴基斯坦国父穆罕默德•阿里•真纳(Muhammad Ali Jinnah)梦想建立一个世俗国家,而非今天的伊斯兰和宗派国家。印度国父贾瓦哈拉尔•尼赫鲁(Jawaharlal Nehru)设想一个多元主义和宽容的印度,然而今天印度教民族主义狂热笼罩着这个国家的一部分地区。

The consequences of the decisions taken 70 years ago reverberate, in a series of never-ending territorial disputes and growing cross-border terrorism. Recent decades have witnessed a new danger as India and Pakistan engage in a nuclear arms race — both now possess at least 100 warheads each. Neither is a signatory to the non-proliferation treaty, making their actions hard to control through outside intervention.

India’s emergence as a growing economic force is incontestable. It is poised to be the world’s third-largest consumer economy, after the US and China. Yet such success prompts only suspicion and nervousness on the part of the Pakistanis, particularly the military, which has managed to elevate suspicion of India into a national security priority.

Partition has helped turn South Asia into one of the world’s most dangerous neighbourhoods. Pakistan’s fear of Indian dominance means it endlessly interferes in neighbouring Afghanistan, which faces a growing insurgency. The Americans have just suspended a military aid package to Pakistan, claiming it is not doing enough to combat terrorism. The Pakistanis are turning to China, which is offering billions in trade and investment. The growing role of China is worrying India — and increasingly the US — as questions grow about Beijing’s ambitions in the Indian Ocean, where it has boosted its naval presence.

Partition, a decision taken in haste by a handful of men, has proved a monumental failure. The people of the region, where millions still live on less than two dollars a day, have paid a terrible price. Seventy years on, Pakistan and India need to let go of the past, and focus more on how they might co-operate in building a better future.

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