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印巴分治:匆匆铸就的历史性错误

2017-08-19    来源:FT中文网    【      美国外教 在线口语培训
India and Pakistan are still paying for a botched partition
印巴分治:匆匆铸就的历史性错误

分治这个当年由少数几人匆匆做出的决定被证明是一个巨大的失败。这个地区的人们为此付出了可怕的代价。
It was the unenviable task of the English lawyer, Sir Cyril Radcliffe, to carve out the new frontiers of India and Pakistan. In a matter of weeks, he got to decide, with a few strokes of his pen, the destiny of some 400m people: his work casts a long shadow to this day. Deed done, Radcliffe burnt his papers and departed, never to return. WH Auden, in his poem, “Partition”, is scornful: “The next day he sailed for England, where he could quickly forget/The case, as a good lawyer must.”
西里尔•拉德克利夫爵士(Sir Cyril Radcliffe)的差事不值得羡慕,他要划分印度和巴基斯坦的新国界线。在几周之内,他要用寥寥数笔决定大约4亿人的命运:他的工作给今天投下了长长的阴影。做完这件事以后,拉德克利夫烧掉他的底稿,然后离开,永远没有再回来。奥登(WH Auden)在他的诗作《分治》(Partition)中轻蔑地写道:“第二天他坐船前往英格兰,在那里他会迅速忘掉/这件案子,就如一个好律师必须做的。”
pakistan
The provinces of Punjab and Bengal were torn in two, making deadly enemies of people who spoke the same language. The choice of where to call home came down to religion alone. The British withdrew hastily: a “shameful flight” is how Winston Churchill, no friend of Indian independence, described it.
旁遮普(Punjab)和孟加拉(Bengal)地区都被一分为二,讲同一种语言的人们变成了死敌。选择把哪里称为自己的家园只能由宗教信仰决定。英国人匆匆撤出:一贯反对印度独立的温斯顿•丘吉尔(Winston Churchill)称其为“可耻的逃离”。

No help was at hand — at that point, the UN was still some years away from defining what constituted refugee status. Hindus, Sikhs and Muslims, who had lived side by side for years, slaughtered each other. Partition is estimated to have cost up to a million lives; the tragedy created at least 11m refugees.
没有援助——联合国(UN)界定难民身份还是好几年以后的事情。多年来一直共同生活的印度教徒、锡克教徒和穆斯林相互屠杀。据估计,分治造成多达100万人丧生;这场悲剧还制造了至少1100万难民。

It did not end there. Partition divided the subcontinent, then almost immediately afterwards the disputed state of Jammu and Kashmir. Finally, in 1971, Pakistan itself split over its Bengali eastern half, which is now Bangladesh. The war that gave birth to Bangladesh saw the Pakistani army murder some 500,000 of its fellow Muslim citizens in the east.
事情并没有止步于此。分治分裂了次大陆,之后几乎立即又导致争议地区查谟-克什米尔邦(Jammu and Kashmir)分裂。最终,在1971年,巴基斯坦本身也发生了分裂,东翼的孟加拉地区脱离,成为今天的孟加拉国。在那场最终使孟加拉国诞生的战争中,巴基斯坦军队杀死了东部的约50万穆斯林同胞。

If only wiser and cooler heads had prevailed 70 years ago, partition would have been avoided. It has proved a catastrophe — in lives lost, the millions wasted in military confrontation, not to mention the collective exhaustion induced by decades of mutual antipathy. The architects of this disaster imagined, rather naively, a peaceful coexistence rather than today’s deadly rivalry. Pakistan’s founder, Muhammad Ali Jinnah, dreamt of a secular state, a far cry from the Islamic and sectarian nation that exists today. India’s leader, Jawaharlal Nehru, envisioned a pluralist and tolerant India, rather than the Hindu nationalist fantasies gripping parts of the country today.
如果70年前由更明智和冷静的人占了上风,分治本可避免。生灵涂炭、军事对峙所浪费的庞大资源、更不必提几十年相互仇视引起的集体疲惫——这些都已证明分治是一场浩劫。这场灾难的缔造者天真地想象,各方能够和平共处,而不是变成今天这样的死敌。巴基斯坦国父穆罕默德•阿里•真纳(Muhammad Ali Jinnah)梦想建立一个世俗国家,而非今天的伊斯兰和宗派国家。印度国父贾瓦哈拉尔•尼赫鲁(Jawaharlal Nehru)设想一个多元主义和宽容的印度,然而今天印度教民族主义狂热笼罩着这个国家的一部分地区。

The consequences of the decisions taken 70 years ago reverberate, in a series of never-ending territorial disputes and growing cross-border terrorism. Recent decades have witnessed a new danger as India and Pakistan engage in a nuclear arms race — both now possess at least 100 warheads each. Neither is a signatory to the non-proliferation treaty, making their actions hard to control through outside intervention.
70年前决定的后果今天依然在产生冲击波,包括一系列没完没了的领土争端和日益加剧的跨境恐怖主义。最近几十年产生了一种新的危险,印度和巴基斯坦投入了核军备竞赛——现在两国各自拥有至少100枚核弹头。两国都不是核不扩散条约的签署国,这意味着很难通过外部干预来控制它们的行动。

India’s emergence as a growing economic force is incontestable. It is poised to be the world’s third-largest consumer economy, after the US and China. Yet such success prompts only suspicion and nervousness on the part of the Pakistanis, particularly the military, which has managed to elevate suspicion of India into a national security priority.
无可辩驳的是,印度正崛起为一支日益强大的经济力量。印度将成为继美国和中国之后的世界第三大消费经济体。然而,印度的这种成功只会引起巴基斯坦,尤其是该国军方的怀疑和紧张,后者已经成功地把对印度的怀疑提升至一个国家安全优先事项。

Partition has helped turn South Asia into one of the world’s most dangerous neighbourhoods. Pakistan’s fear of Indian dominance means it endlessly interferes in neighbouring Afghanistan, which faces a growing insurgency. The Americans have just suspended a military aid package to Pakistan, claiming it is not doing enough to combat terrorism. The Pakistanis are turning to China, which is offering billions in trade and investment. The growing role of China is worrying India — and increasingly the US — as questions grow about Beijing’s ambitions in the Indian Ocean, where it has boosted its naval presence.
印巴分治导致南亚成为世界上最危险的地区之一。由于担心印度的优势地位,巴基斯坦不断插手邻国阿富汗的事务,使阿富汗面临日益加剧的武装叛乱。美国刚刚中止一项对巴基斯坦的军事援助计划,声称巴基斯坦打击恐怖主义不力。现在巴基斯坦正逐渐转向为其提供巨额贸易与投资的中国。中国在南亚的势力扩大,正引起印度(也日益引起美国)的忧虑。随着是中国在印度洋扩大海军存在,其在印度洋的雄心引发质疑。

Partition, a decision taken in haste by a handful of men, has proved a monumental failure. The people of the region, where millions still live on less than two dollars a day, have paid a terrible price. Seventy years on, Pakistan and India need to let go of the past, and focus more on how they might co-operate in building a better future.
分治,这个当年由少数几人匆匆做出的决定,被证明是一个巨大的失败。这个地区的人们为此付出了可怕的代价,如今这里仍有数百万人每天只依靠不到2美元生活。70年过去了,巴基斯坦和印度需要卸下历史的包袱,把更大精力投入如何合作,创造一个更美好的未来。


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