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调查:空气污染比吸烟对孕妇更有害

2014-02-20    来源:MailOnline    【      美国外教 在线口语培训

据英国《每日邮报》报道,来自佛罗里达大学的一项研究显示城市污染可能比吸烟对孕妇更有害。

研究显示,长期暴露于汽车尾气和工业废气中的孕妇容易患上疑难病症。同时,长期大量吸入空气中的污染物会导致患高血压的概率上升。那些对人体最为有害的污染物包括一氧化碳和二氧化硫。二氧化硫的排放多来自电厂和工业生产,而一氧化碳则多来自于汽车尾气的排放。

“胎儿在发育阶段对空气因素是非常敏感的,”佛罗里达大学流行病学学院的教授助理徐晓辉(音译)博士说。

“这就是我们做这项研究的原因。特别是高血压,它与发病率与死亡率都有联系,它还会导致母亲和胎儿的众多问题,包括早产。”

据《每日邮报》报道,10%的孕妇患有高血压。为了更细致地了解孕妇病变的原因,研究者收集了2004年到2005年间佛罗里达州最大城市杰克逊维尔的孕妇资料,以及她们居住的小区环境。研究案例包括22000多位孕妇。

研究者测量了这些孕妇怀孕期间所接触的污染量,并通过此来测量污染物的水平。在这些孕妇的样本中,有4.7%的孕妇患上了高血压。据徐博士称在怀孕的最初阶段(1-6个月),与空气中的污染物接触会增加孕妇的患病几率。但科学家们同时也表示他们还无法断定在怀孕早期还是晚期接触污染物会更有可能增加患高血压的概率。

研究者计划将研究推广至佛罗里达全州,同时检测由空气污染引发的其他不良症状。


Polluted cities may be more harmful to pregnant women than smoking cigarettes.
This is the claim of a recent U.S. study which argues that mothers-to-be are at a high risk of developing complications from exposure to car exhausts and industrial waste.

Heavy intake of air pollutants could lead to an increased risk of developing high blood pressure disorders during pregnancy, according to the study.

Scientists at the University of Florida said the worst offending pollutants include two specific types of particulate matter; carbon monoxide and sulphur dioxide.

Sulphur dioxide is emitted from power plants and industries, while most carbon monoxide is produced by car exhaust.

Fetal development is very sensitive to environmental factors,’ said Dr Xiaohui Xu, an assistant professor of epidemiology in the colleges of Public Health and Health Professions and Medicine.


‘That is why we wanted to do this research. Hypertension (high blood pressure), in particular, is associated with increased morbidity and mortality, causing a lot of problems for the mother and fetus, including pre-term delivery.’

Hypertensive disorders are thought to affect about 10 per cent of pregnancies.
Despite the serious risks to mother and baby, little is known about what specifically causes these conditions to develop in pregnant women, the researchers say.

To gain a better understanding, the researchers examined data from women who gave birth in Jacksonville, Florida, between 2004 and 2005 and environmental data from their communities.

The sample included more than 22,000 pregnant women.

The researchers gauged how much pollution the women were exposed to throughout their pregnancies to measure the levels of several pollutants.
Among the sample of women, 4.7 per cent developed a hypertensive disorder during pregnancy.

Exposure to air pollutants throughout the first two trimesters of pregnancy increased women’s risk of developing one of these conditions, Dr Xu said.
They determined this after controlling other factors that could affect a woman’s risk for developing hypertension, such as socioeconomic status, exposure to co-pollutants and smoking during pregnancy.

But scientists said they could not determine conclusively whether exposure early in the pregnancy or late in the pregnancy was more likely to increase a woman’s risk for hypertension.

‘It looks like the whole period has impacts for hypertension,’ he said.
On the basis of these findings, the researchers say more air pollution control is necessary to prevent dangerous complications in pregnant women and babies.
The researchers now plan to expand their study throughout the state and also examine other conditions that could be affected by pollution.
‘We are trying to look at several outcomes,’ Dr Xu said.
‘We also want to look at preterm delivery and low birth-weight and find out what the effects of breathing contaminated air are on fetal development.’(MailOnline


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