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调查:亲子关系不好 孩子成绩差

2014-03-31    来源:中国日报    【      美国外教 在线口语培训

Poor parent-child bonding 'hampers learning'

萨顿信托基金会(The Sutton Trust)的一份报告指出,良好的亲子关系对孩子日后的教育学习影响重大,远超以往预期。

The emotional bond a child secures with its parents has a greater impact on its education than previously thought, a report suggests.

The Sutton Trust study says children's early attachment to parents has far-reaching consequences for their ability to speak, learn and think.
Parents who are insecure themselves find it harder to provide children with security, it says.

And the report calls for more help so parents can develop such crucial bonds.
The study focuses on the application of the theory of attachment - a key theory in child development and psychology.

This says the degree to which children are secure and resilient as they grow up depends on their own early experiences with their mothers and fathers and how they have bonded.

But the report from the Sutton Trust education charity, entitled Baby Bonds, makes the case that it has an important impact on children's future educational chances as well as their emotional well-being.

It is based on an analysis of more than 100 studies on the issue, including home visits and assessments and observations of children in a range of countries.

The trust argues that although psychologists have been aware of attachment theory, it has not been seen by policy makers as a key influence on educational attainment. And it asks them to take this into account.

The report says when babies and toddlers do not form these strong parental bonds - known as secure attachment - they are more likely to exhibit poor language and poor behaviour before they reach school.

And it cites international studies which suggest this continues late into life, with insecure children more likely to leave school early or duck out of employment or training.

They are also more likely to suffer from aggression, defiance and hyperactivity later in life.

The Sutton Trust says its analysis of the research suggests that about 40% of children in the UK lack a secure attachment with their parents.

Lead author Sophie Moullin said that when her team looked at large scale representative studies in a number of countries they all found, from their observations, that between 38% and 42% of children suffered from poor attachment in all the different study locations.

She added: "Secure attachment really helps children with emotional and social development and at school it really helps them to manage their behaviour. These are the things that teachers will tell you that are stopping children from learning.

"It's really only as we understand more about these behaviour problems that we have decided that a lot of it goes back to this early bonding with parents."
Research director at the trust Conor Ryan said: "Better bonding between parents and babies could lead to more social mobility, as there is such a clear link to education, behaviour and future employment.


"The educational divide emerges early in life, with a 19-month school readiness gap between the most and least advantaged children by the age of five.
"This report clearly identifies the fundamental role secure attachment could have in narrowing that school readiness gap and improving children's life chances.

"More support from health visitors, children's centres and local authorities in helping parents improve how they bond with young children could play a role in narrowing the education gap."

相关内容

研究发现,婴幼儿与父母的亲子关系会对他们日后的读、写以及思辨能力产生深远影响。
报告指出,那些缺乏安全感的父母很难给予孩子关怀。

报告指出,基金会呼吁多方的关注,帮助父母们认识到亲子关系的重要性。

基金会主要采用依恋理论(theory of attachment)进行研究——该理论在儿童成长与心理学领域颇为著名。

研究重点关注了依附理论,孩子小时候与父母的关系如何,决定了他们在成长过程中能否拥有安全感以及积极乐观的心态。

但英国慈善教育机构萨顿信托基金会在题为《婴儿的情感纽带》报告中指出,亲子关系除了会影响孩子的心态以外,还会他们日后的学习生活,
该结论是基于对于100多项研究的分析得出的,这其中包括对各国儿童所进行的家访、行为评估以及观察。

研究人员认为,尽管心理学家对依附理论有所关注,但决策者并未将这一理论与学习机能联系在一起,希望有关部门能采纳这一研究成果。

报告指出,孩子在婴幼儿时期若是与父母的关系不甚良好——也就是缺乏安全型依附——那么入学前,这些孩子的语言及行为能力可能会表现得差一些。

报告引用了世界各国的研究,研究表明亲子关系会对孩子日后的生活产生影响,与同龄人相比,那些缺乏安全感的孩子更可能辍学或逃避就业。

缺爱的孩子长大后还可能更叛逆,更有攻击性,更加多动。

萨顿信托基金会的研究表明,英国大约有40%的孩子无法无法从父母处获得安全感。

主要研究者苏菲穆兰表示她所在的小组从全球的案例中选用了许多有代表性个案。通过观察发现全世界大约有38%到42%的孩子与父母的关系很疏远。

苏菲补充说道:“安全性依附使孩子保持良好的心态以及更好的融入社会。孩子入学后,良好的亲子关系使他们的日常行为更加规范。相反,那些缺乏安全感的孩子学业可能就不会那么顺利,老师可能会向家长反映孩子行为乖张,情绪不稳,无法融入集体,以致成绩不佳。”

“当我们对这些不良行为的理解加深后才发现,这其中的许多问题都归咎于婴幼儿时期父母对孩子的冷落。”

信托基金会的研究负责人康奈尔瑞安表示:“良好的亲子关系不但有助于孩子未来的学习以及求职,能规范孩子的行为,还能帮助孩子更好的进行社会职能的转变。”

“五岁时孩子学习能力的差距就开始显现,第一名和最后一名之间大概相差19个月。”
“我们的报告强调了安全性依恋的重要性,良好的亲子关系既能缩小同龄人间学习能力的差距还能使孩子拥有更多发展的机会。”

“本国的卫生访视员,儿童中心和地方当局已意识亲子关系的重要性,有关部门已采取措施,督促父母给予孩子更多关爱,以便缩小同龄人间学习能力的差距。”


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