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面试时,面试官无权问你的五个问题

2014-04-30    来源:chinadaily    【      美国外教 在线口语培训

5 job interview questions that are illegal to ask

如果你正在找工作,那你一定很清楚,面试过程中,雇主会问出一些刁钻的问题,但是你知道吗,有些问题即使是雇主也是没有资格来问你的。

If you’re looking for a new job, you know you’re going to have to answer some tough questions in the interview process. But did you know there are some questions that are illegal for employers to ask you?

For example, it’s illegal to ask any questions related to protected classes, says Charles A. Krugel, an HR attorney. “Protected classes typically include race, gender, nationality, religion, military status and age (40 and up). Usually, such questions are intended to identify those class members. More often than not, it's ‘loaded’ questions that are asked, or those where it's fairly obvious that the asker has a hidden agenda and the question has little to do with the job's essential duties.”

Some examples of these questions include,”I notice that you live in Brookfield, there's some nice country clubs and retirement communities there -- are you a member of any of them?” and “If you need to commute to work, how would you do that?” The first question can relate to socioeconomic status, gender, race, religion and age, Krugel says., while the second may be looking for information on socioeconomic status and race.

Here are five common questions that interviewers shouldn’t be asking, under the law.

Who will take care of your children while you’re at work?
Even if you’ve shared information about having children, there’s no need for a prospective employer to ask who’s taking care of them, says Tom Spiggle of the Spiggle Law Firm. The law prohibits making employment decisions based on gender stereotypes, he explains. “For instance, that women or men with children are less committed to work than those without.”

“Note, however, that it would not be illegal to deny a job opportunity to a candidate who volunteered, ‘I have young children and can't work past 4:30,’ when the job requires evening work,” Spiggle says. “Such a decision would be based on work restrictions offered by the candidate, not because of improper stereotype.”

How did you get that scar/mark/other physical abnormality?
“The ADA prohibits not only discrimination against those with an actual disability, but against those who are ‘regarded as disabled,’” says Kelly Kolb, labor and employment attorney atFowler White Boggs. “Questions about an employee's physical characteristics (to the extent they reflect a perception of disability) are prohibited, just as are questions about a person's actual disability.”

Prospective employers may, however, ask if you’re able to perform essential functions of the job, with or without accommodation, Kolb says.

How often are you deployed for your Army Reserve training exercises?
Kolb says employers cannot make employment decisions on the basis of a service member's membership or active duty service in the military. “Essentially, the employer cannot ask questions about the effect of the employee's military service on his ability to work for the employer.”


When are you planning on having children?
Employers can’t make judgments about a person’s dedication to their work by whether they have kids or will have them in the future. “If the employer wants to find out how committed the candidate will be to the job offered, the interviewer should ask questions such as, ‘What hours can you work?’ or ‘Do you have commitments aside from work that will interfere with specific job requirements such as traveling?’” says Davida S. Perry of Schwartz & Perry.

Even an innocuous question such as “when is your baby due?” to an obviously pregnant applicant can cause problems, says Lisa Schmid, an attorney at Nilan Johnson Lewis. “It is not illegal under the Pregnancy Discrimination Act, but it presents a risk for employers because it obviously seeks information about an applicant’s pregnancy, and discrimination on the basis of pregnancy is illegal.” Also, there may be state laws that explicitly prohibit asking about a pregnancy.

Have you ever been arrested?
It’s legal to ask about whether candidates have been convicted of a crime, but not if they’ve been arrested, says Shari Shore of Wolf and Shore Law. Cases may have been dismissed without a conviction, or the original charges may have been lowered to lesser charges.

相关内容

人力资源律师查尔斯·A·库鲁格表示,像应聘者的一些个人信息是受到保护的,雇主不得开口询问。“具体有以下几点:关于种族,性别,国籍,宗教,军衔和年龄(如应聘者年龄达四十及以上)的信息。通常来说,雇主提这些问题的目的是想给应聘者贴上标签。而雇主通过提问刺探应聘者隐私往往会给后者带来很大压力,很明显,他们是有意为之,而这些问题又基本和未来的工作无关。”

譬如,“你的简历上写着你曾在布鲁克费尔德市(Brookfield)住过一段时间,那儿有很多有名的乡村俱乐部和老年俱乐部吧——你加入过什么俱乐部吗?”,又或者“你每天上下班采用哪种交通方式?”。前一个问题涉及你的经济状况,性别,种族,宗教信仰和年龄等方面的隐私,通过后一个问题则可以得知你的经济状况和种族信息。
根据法律规定,面试时,雇主的提问不得涉及以下五个方面。

你上班时,谁在家中照顾孩子?
斯皮格律师事务所(Spiggle Law Firm)的汤姆·斯皮格(Tom Spiggle)律师指出,即使在面试中,雇主和你聊到了孩子的话题,他们也没有必要详细了解你家谁负责带孩子。有关法律规定,雇主不得对应聘者的性别加以歧视,他解释道:“这样的歧视有很多种,比如认为有孩子的应聘者在工作时容易分心。”

“但是,如果具体工作需要加班,而应聘者却主动提出‘我孩子还小,我四点半就要回家带孩子,’企业可以考虑不录取该名应聘者”。斯皮格律师补充道,“雇主拒否录取员工应取决于具体客观条件而非主观印象。”

你身上的那道疤/伤痕/或其他非正常体貌特征是怎么来的?
“美国残疾人法案(ADA)明确规止雇主不得歧视残疾人士,也不应对那些“类似残疾人士”妄加揣测,以种种理由拒绝录用,”福勒·怀特·博格斯律师事务所(Fowler White Boggs.)负责劳工雇佣事务的凯利·科尔布律师(Kelly Kolb)表示。“雇主对那些类似残疾人士也应予以相应的尊重,不应问及他们的体貌特征(不能表现出对其残疾的觉察)”

科尔布表示,然而,无论工作是否提供住宿,雇主还可以问及你的体能是否能够胜任工作。

你在加入后备军参与军事训练期间是否被经常调动?
科尔布表示无论应聘者是服役人员还是正在军队服役,都应受到平等对待,雇主不可因此不予以录用。“实际上,雇主不可开口询问应聘者在服役期间的表现,并以此为工作能力的评判标准。”

你今后是否打算要孩子?
雇主不能因为应聘者已生子或是将来有孩子的打算而怀疑他们是否会尽心工作。“如果雇主想了解应聘者能否吃苦耐劳,那他们应该这样问,‘你一天能工作几个小时?’或者‘如果你的出行计划和工作相冲突,你能否做到将工作发在首位?’”施瓦茨和佩里律师事务所(Schwartz & Perry)的达维达·S·佩里律师(Davida S. Perry)如是说。
妮兰·约翰逊·刘易斯律师事务所(Nilan Johnson Lewis)的丽莎·施密德(Lisa Schmid)律师指出雇主在面试时应谨慎提问,即使是在见到应聘者怀有身孕时,随口一问“你的宝宝什么时候出世?”都可能涉嫌侵犯应聘者隐私。“雇主提出这种问题并未违反怀孕歧视法案(Pregnancy Discrimination Act),但是仍不免让人怀疑雇主是有意探听孕妇的隐私,进而歧视该类怀孕的应聘者。”同时,美国一些州也立法明确规定雇主不应问及孕妇的隐私。

你被逮捕过吗?
沃夫和肖律师事务所(Wolf and Shore Law)的莎丽·肖(Shari Shore)律师表示雇主可以询问应聘者是否有过前科,但不能详细问及他们是否被逮捕过。即使应聘者曾被逮捕,但没有定案即表示罪名不成立,或者说应聘者的犯罪情节并非十分严重。


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