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英语新闻:儿童喝能量饮料可致命

2014-11-19    来源:chinadaily    【      美国外教 在线口语培训

英语新闻:儿童喝能量饮料可致命

Young children may face serious health risks from popular energy drinks, such as Monster, Red Bull and Rock Star, potentially causing seizures, heart problems and other life-threatening conditions, according to the findings of new research.

More than 5,000 calls involving problems with energy drinks were received by Poison Control Centers in the United States between October 2010 and September 2013, with more than 40% of the calls involving children under the age of 6 who drank Monster or another similar product without realizing what it was.

During a presentation at the annual Cardiac Scientific Sessions 2014 meeting of the American Heart Association (AHA), researchers warned about the risk of allowing young children access to the controversial energy drinks, which contain high amounts of caffeine and other stimulants.

Researchers analyzed reports involving energy drink problems among children from the National Poison Data System, which compiles information on calls to 55 Poison Control Centers throughout the United States. About one-third of the calls involving children involved serious adverse events that required further treatment, including seizures, nausea, vomiting, chest pain and erratic heart rhythms.

Nearly 60% of cases involved cardiovascular side effects, causing symptoms like abnormal heart rhythms and conduction abnormalities.

According to data released by the FDA in 2012, at least six deaths have been linked to energy drinks, including at least two deaths of teens that resulted in wrongful death lawsuits against the makers of Monster.

Steven Lipshultz, M.D., lead author of the study and professor of pediatrics at Wayne State University, said that in 42% of moderate to major injuries, the situation involved energy drinks that were mixed with alcohol.

Researchers indicate that the energy drinks are not intended for young children and are not safe for them to consume. Lipshultz is calling for a warning on all energy drink cans and bottles, warning parents of the risk allowing children access to the beverages.

A report from the Institute of Medicine estimates fewer than half of all poisonings in the US are reported to the National Poison Data system, suggesting that the true number of childhood injuries with energy drinks is substantially higher than the data reflects.

“Energy drinks have no place in pediatric diets,” Lipshultz said. “The reported data probably represent the tip of the iceberg.”

People with underlying health conditions are especially at risk, he noted. Those with conditions like attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and diabetes, or those taking medications, should especially be concerned and vigilant when drinking these products.

Energy Drink Health Concerns
Researchers said it is difficult to know exactly how much caffeine is contained in each can or bottle of energy drinks like 5 Hour Energy, Red Bull and others, since they are often marketed as dietary supplements, which allow the manufacturers to avoid FDA regulations.

Energy drink manufacturers have compared the amount of caffeine in their products to that of hot beverages sold in coffee houses, but the products are often packaged in very large sizes and they are not sold in controlled environments like coffee houses, which typically would not serve young children. Energy drinks are widely available in convenience stores next to traditional soft drinks, typically packaged in very similar cans and using similar marketing techniques.

Many of the products contain pharmaceutical grade caffeine and additional caffeine from other natural sources. This much caffeine in one serving can cause a person’s heart to beat rapidly, increase blood pressure, or other nervous, digestive or cardiovascular system side effects, health experts warn.

Some energy drinks in many of the popular lines, like Monster and Red Bull, can contain up to 400 mg of caffeine per can. In comparison, a cup of coffee typically has around 100 mg of caffeine.

Caffeine poisoning can occur in adults at levels higher than 400 mg a day; however children under 12 can experience caffeine poisoning at only 2.5 mg per 2.2 pounds of body weight.

A study published in September backed up the new findings, revealing energy drinks like Rock Star and Red Bull may cause serious heart problems.
French researchers revealed the popular energy drinks may be linked to increased risk of angina, irregular heartbeats and even sudden death.

Another study concluded Monster and Rock Star energy drinks and others may affect the way the heart beats, causing more forceful contractions. The study, using MRIs, found people who consumed energy drinks had significantly increased heart contraction rates, causing more strain on the left ventricle, the portion of the heart involved in pumping blood from the lungs to the aorta and distributing it to the rest of the body.

The FDA is currently investigating health concerns surrounding the drinks after numerous adverse event reports have been submitted in recent years connecting energy drinks to severe injuries and deaths. According to information released in 2012, at least 37 adverse event reports have been received by the FDA involving health problems from Monster Energy drinks, including at least six deaths.


Amid aggressive marketing by the manufacturers, energy drink sales increased 240% between 2004 and 2009, and the number of caffeine overdose emergency room visits increased from 1,128 in 2005 to 16,055 in 2008. Approximately 56% of those visits involved individuals between the ages of 12 and 25 years.

相关内容

最新研究成果表明,市面上流行的能量饮料会给孩子的身体健康带来极大风险。饮用诸如怪兽(Monster)、红牛(Red Bull)、摇滚明星(Rock Star)之类的能量饮料可能会引起癫痫、心脏病以及其他致命的疾病。

2010年10月到2013年9月,多家美国中毒控制中心(Poison Control Centers)接到投诉能量饮料安全问题的电话共5000多个。其中反映年龄不到6岁的孩童误喝“怪兽”等能量饮料的来电比例超过40%。

2014年美国心脏协会(the American Heart Association)年度心脏科学会议上,研究者们警告让孩子饮用能量饮料存在健康风险,这些争议性的饮料含有大量的咖啡因和其他刺激性物质。

美国国家中毒数据系统(the National Poison Data System)收集了全美55所中毒控制中心接到的来电投诉。研究者们对这些反映能量饮料问题的投诉内容进行了分析,发现大约有三分之一的来电都反映幼童饮用能量饮料后产生了不良反应需要进一步的治疗。这些不良反应包括癫痫、呕吐、胸痛和心率不齐。

同时,近60%的来电投诉案例都都涉及心血管疾病,如引起心率不齐、心脉紊乱紊乱等症状。

据2012年美国食品药品监督管理局(FDA)发布的数据显示,至少有6例死亡案件与能量饮料有关。怪兽饮料公司也因其产品涉嫌造成2名青少年非正常死亡而被告上法庭。
韦恩州立大学(Wayne State University)儿科学带头人史蒂芬・利普舒兹(Steven Lipshultz)教授表示在中度至重度不良反应中有42%涉及到饮用的饮料中混有酒精。
研究者们指出能量饮料的目标人群并非低龄儿童,对他们来说饮用该类饮料并不安全。利普舒兹教授呼吁公众注意各种能量型饮料潜在的危险,同时警告家长孩子饮用后可能引起的健康问题。

据一份美国国家医学院(the Institute of Medicine)的报告推测,中毒数据系统所统计的能量饮料中毒数量不及实际发生的一半,儿童由能量饮料引起的不良反应人数远超出统计数据。

“儿童食物中不应出现能量饮料,”利普舒兹教授说道,“报告的数字很可能只是冰山一角。”

他指出身体素质本身就存在问题的孩子在饮用能量饮料后发生不良反应的几率更高。尤其是那些注意力不集中,患有多动症、肥胖症以及长期服用药物的孩子更需要大人的高度警惕。

能量饮料引起的健康问题
研究者们表示很难知道每瓶像5小时能量(5 Hour Energy)、红牛这样的饮料究竟含有多少咖啡因。因为它们通常作为普通食品进入市场,可以不受食品和药品监督管理局的规定约束。

能量饮料厂家常常拿自家产品的咖啡因含量与咖啡店所售的热饮相比。但通常他们的商品包装更大而且产品销售所面临的管理环境比咖啡店更为宽松。咖啡店不会针对低龄儿童销售咖啡因饮料。但在便利店就能买到能量饮料,它的旁边常常摆放着传统软饮料。两者包装相似,营销手段相仿。

很多能量饮料含有药物级别的咖啡因和提取自其他自然资源的添加剂咖啡因。健康专家警告一次性摄入过量咖啡因会使心跳加快、血压上升,神经、消化或心血管系统出现问题。

每罐像怪兽、红牛这样的热门能量饮料含有400毫克的咖啡因,而一杯咖啡的咖啡因含量是100毫克。

一个成年人一天摄入咖啡因超过400毫克就会中毒。而12岁以下的儿童如果每2.2磅(约1kg)体重中含有2.5毫克咖啡因就会中毒。

2014年9月发布的一个研究结果也支持这些新发现:摇滚明星、红牛这样的能量型饮料会引发严重的心脏问题。

法国研究学者指出饮用能量饮料有可能增加患心绞痛、心率失常等疾病的风险,情况严重者甚至会猝死。

另一项研究结论表明怪兽、摇滚明星及其他能量饮料会影响到心跳,导致心脏强烈收缩。这项研究利用核磁共振发现饮用能量饮料的人心率容易加快,左心房负担加重,而左心房是全身血液循环的中枢。

近年来美国食品药品监督管理局已经收到多份有关不良反应的报告,它们都显示能量饮料可能是一些疾病发生甚至导致死亡的原因。目前管理局也正在就此问题展开调查。2012年的数据显示,管理局至少收到37份因怪兽饮料引起健康问题的报告,其中包括六例死亡案件。

2004年到2009年,能量饮料在商家疯狂的营销策略下销售额增长2.4倍。而因过量摄入咖啡因到急诊室就诊人数从2005年的1128人增至2008年的1万6055人。其中56%的人年龄在12岁与25岁之间。


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