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艾玛·沃森特专访汤姆·汉克斯:谈谈女权平等问题

2016-04-15    来源:女人迷&网易&esquire    【      美国外教 在线口语培训

Emma Watson Interviews Tom Hanks On films, family and feminism艾玛·沃森特专访汤姆·汉克斯:谈谈女权平等问题

 
今年二月,艾玛·沃森宣布息影一年,她说希望自己的2016属于女性主义。她发起在线的女权阅读俱乐部,要贪心的读,要爬梳女性主义的经典,要强化自己,再坦荡荡地面对世界上层出不穷的性别问题。
 
今年三月,艾玛·沃森与汤姆·汉克斯登上英国版君子杂志封面,艾玛邀请汤姆汉克斯加入HeForshe活动,用女性视角采访汤姆汉克斯,他们从自我成长、家庭,一路聊到女性主义与好莱坞电影产业。
 
我们对汤姆汉克斯并不陌生,多数时候我们记得他在《阿甘正传》、《浩劫重生》、《抢救雷恩大兵》、《达文西密码》里的阳刚模样,这位在电影圈耕耘近四十年的实力派演员,接受采访时,侃侃而谈自己为何支持同性婚姻,为何选择成为女性主义者,那是因为二十一世纪,如果我们还不为平等权益努力,那是有愧人类历史长河的几千年,我们见到他特别柔软的一面。
 
Emma Watson: Are you a feminist?
 
Tom Hanks: Yes I am. We are in the Third Millennium. We have thousands of years of human history under our belts. If we are not continuously moving towards equal rights, equal opportunities and equal freedoms for every member of the human race — not just that half that is male — then we have squandered all we have learned.
 
EW: I know you have both sons and a daughter. I was really moved to hear how much you support your wife in her work. I don't want to pry into your private life but have you thought about gender equality in the way you have parented and in your marriage?
 
TH: My mother got out of unhappy unions and marriages on her own — she was an only child after all. She went to college as she worked and raised more kids than just her own. My sister called her own shots the same way. My wife and my daughter have yet to allow themselves to be defined only by the man in their lives. The women I have worked with and those I seek inspiration from have had different perspectives on all there is to have an opinion on in this world, and I have always learned from listening to them. My support of those women and those in my family has been the same as it has for any man or any of my sons.

EW: You have been very supportive of same-sex marriage. I spoke a lot in my speech to the UN about the importance of seeing gender on a spectrum instead of as binary, and being inclusive of where everyone fits on that spectrum. Would this be something you would like to speak about? Is there a connection there?
 
TH: Look at us human beings! Each of our fingerprints is unique. Our eyes are just as varied. Just as no two snowflakes are the same, neither are we. We are as singular as those lines and ridges on our palms and fingers. Our gender is defined the same way. We love who we love, we are passionate for those who stir us. The directions our love takes us in are infinite. Not just two boxes marked EITHER and OR.
 
EW: I know you are interested in politics and in business. Do you think female involvement is important? Did you see that Justin Trudeau, the new Canadian President, has made his government 50:50?
 
TH: I saw that and predict that Canada will be run 50 per cent better than before.
 
EW: You are no stranger to working with strong women. One of your most famous films, Big, was directed by Penny Marshall and you starred in A League of Their Own alongside Geena Davis, who founded the Geena Davis Institute to campaign for gender equality in film. But Hollywood is far from equal, on screen and off. Of the top films in 2013, women accounted for only 30 per cent of all speaking characters. Female characters are almost four times as likely as males to be shown in sexy attire in G-rated [family] films. Or look at the Oscars. The LA Times reports that Academy voters are 76 per cent male, 93 per cent white, with an average age of 63. Kathryn Bigelow is the only woman to win the Oscar for Best Director. No woman of colour has ever been nominated. Why does this matter?
 
TH: Because the art form of cinema becomes less of an art, and no longer holds the mirror up to nature when women are reduced to being only hot or nurturing. The great films make us all recognise ourselves up there on the screen, even when the characters are women from a different time and maybe speak a different language. When rules of gender and character dictate what stories are told and by whom, when women are required to be only hot or only nurturing, they no longer are full dimensional humans. That's not art, and it brings less enlightenment to the world. The economics of motion pictures makes faith in voodoo equal to those in a Vegas casino. Bets on making money are made on hunches, odd rules and track records. "Men have a certain touch with material, you can tell by the T-shirts they wear!" "Women directors play with different instincts because they often have babies!" Outliers come along much more often than are admitted. Television is a different matter. There are more women in starring roles, writing and running shows, and even in executive suites. The movies will catch up...

 【参考译文】

汤姆·汉克斯:“我是女权主义者”

艾玛·沃森:你觉得自己是女权主义者吗?
 
汤姆汉克斯:我想我是。我们活在二十一世纪,该向过去几千年的历史深刻学习。如果我们并未持续为活着的人争取平等权益、平等机会、平等自由,而持续让权益独厚男性,那我们等同浪费了过去的时光。
 
艾玛·沃森:我知道你有儿子跟女儿。我也同样感动听到你全力支持你的妻子追求职场成就。我不想过度探问你的私生活,不过当你教育后代与经营婚姻关系时,性别平权议题是否是你关注的重点?
 
汤姆汉克斯:我妈妈主动离开让她不快乐的婚姻关系,她一边工作、一边进修,一边拉拔孩子长大。我的姊姊同样也为自己的人生奋力一搏。我的太太与女儿从不觉得男人有权主导他们的人生。在工作上我遇到的女性,总是替我带来更不同与多元的观点,光是聆听她们说话,我觉得自己获得许多。
 
我对于这些女性与我的女儿的支持,与我对男性与我的儿子的支持,从来没有不同。
 
谈同性婚姻:“爱的方向是无限的,不该是二分是非题”
 
艾玛·沃森:你相当支持同性婚姻。我在联合国的演讲中也曾提过我们应该将性别视为一道光谱,而不只是简单的对立二分法,在光谱上的任何人都该有自己舒服的位置。你的看法也是如此吗?
 
汤姆汉克斯:看看我们人类,每个指纹都是独特的,每个眼珠都是不同的。没有两片雪花的形状会相似,人类也是一样。每个人都像掌纹与指纹上的纹路与皱折那样独特,我们的性别也应该如此。我们去爱我们爱的,对能激励我们的事物兴起热情。
 
爱能引领的方向是无限的,不该变成二分的是非题,逼迫人们必须择一。
 
非性感不可的女性?好莱坞的电影产业不再能反映现实世界
 
艾玛·沃森:我知道你对政治与商业议题有兴趣。你认为提高女性参与比率重要吗?你是否看到先前加拿大总理 Justin Trudeau 宣布内阁将由男女比 50:50 组成的消息?
 
汤姆汉克斯:我看到那则消息,并且也乐见其成。
 
艾玛·沃森:你在职场上,经常与杰出的女性共事。你出演的作品《飞进未来》就是由女性导演佩尼马歇尔执导,你在《红粉联盟》中也与吉娜戴维斯合作,她成立了戴维斯机构为了电影产业里的性别权益发声。
 
但即便如此,好莱坞距离平权的路依然很远,无论是屏幕前或屏幕后。2013 年的热门电影中,有台词的女性角色只有 30%,但女性裸露的镜头则是男性演员的四倍。先前纽约时报的报导指出奥斯卡影艺学院成员有 76%是男性,93%是白人。凯瑟琳毕格罗是唯一一位曾拿下奥斯卡最佳导演奖的女性,过去从未提名过任何有色人种的女性导演。你觉得好莱坞里的性别议题为何重要?
 
汤姆汉克斯:我想,现今的电影艺术逐渐与艺术层次脱节,电影里的女性总是难脱性感或是负责照料的形象,这点已经不能精准反映现实世界。对我而言,真正伟大的电影,必须让观众在影片中辨识出自己,即便我们并不属于同种性别,或是并不说同种语言。 
 
当性别教条与角色潜规则决定了谁书写故事,以及谁出演故事,女性总被要求负责出演性感或是人妻角色,这削弱了女性的完整与多重身份。我不认为那是艺术,它并未对世界带来启发。
 
电影产业是迷信的,他们凭借第六感、怪异的旧规则、过往的卖座纪录来赌接下来会不会卖座。但是世界比好莱坞想象得更宽广许多。我觉得现在电视圈比电影圈进步了,电视圈里有更多聚集主角是女性,有许多制片是女性,女性有自己的节目,我期望未来电影圈能逐步跟进。
(来源:女人迷&网易&esquire)


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