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经济学人:人类运动盛会奥运会的历史

2016-08-10    来源:普特英语听力    【      美国外教 在线口语培训
History
 
In 1892, Baron de Coubertin, a French educator and historian, called for the restoration of the Olympic games, hoping that they would promote peace and also help achieve his decidedly conservative political aims. De Coubertin considered the games a way to promote ideals of manliness. He argued that women’s sport was “the most unaesthetic sight human eyes could contemplate” and that the games should be reserved for men.
1892年,法国教育家和历史学家皮埃尔·顾拜旦男爵,呼吁恢复奥林匹克运动会,希望借此推动世界和平,实现自己的政治梦想。顾拜旦视奥运会为实现人类最大价值的不二方式。他说:“女人参与运动实在谈不上雅观”,只有完全由男性参与的运动才具有美感。
 
The Olympics have always been intertwined with politics. The International Olympic Committee (IOC) has never wavered from its underlying conservatism. Taiwan preserved its place in the Olympics far longer than it did in the United Nations.
自此,奥运会开始与政治挂钩。国际奥组委(IOC)一直是(政治)保守主义。台湾,虽染指联合国时间不长,却一直位列奥运会国家名单。
 
Ludicrously, the IOC maintained the “hypocritical and ultimately forlorn” pretence of amateurism until 1988—even as Soviet athletes were amateurs in name only.
1988年以前,IOC一直坚持所谓的“虚伪至极且极不现实的”业余主义(国际奥林匹克运动委员会宪章对业余是这样定义的:参加运动的人是为了单纯使身体、精神受益,而不是为了直接或间接的物质获得)。哪怕是前苏联的运动员,名义上也是业余。
 
And from 1928 until 1968, there were no women’s races of more than 200 metres because it made them look too tired. It took until 1984 for women to make up one-fifth of competing athletes.
1928年至1968年之间,除了200米短跑,其余赛跑项目均不设女子比赛。原因是赛跑会让女性看起来很疲惫。直到1984年后,女性才被允许参赛(占总参赛人数20%)。
 
Events
 
At every turn, the Olympics has alloweditself to be manipulated by governments, including appalling regimes. Ahead ofthe 1936 games in Berlin, the chairman of the American Olympic Committeeconcluded that there was no case for a boycott as there was no discriminationin German sport. Nazi Germany, which had initially been reluctant to play host,soon realised the huge potential benefits: it is estimated that more was spenton the Berlin games than all the previous Olympics combined. Adolf Hitler andthe Nazi entourage attended every day. 
包括极端政府在内的所有政府,都操纵着奥运会。1936年柏林奥运会前夕,美国奥组委主席认为这场赛事并未出现歧视现象,因此不必抵制。当时掌控德国政府的纳粹分子此前并不愿意举办奥运会,但他们很快意识到奥运会能带来诸多好处。柏林奥运会的花费远远超过之前所有奥运会花费总和。比赛期间,希特勒和纳粹随行人员每天出席。
 
More recently, the IOC has allowedgovernments to hide their problems from view during the games—after Atlantasubmitted its bid for the 1996 games, homeless people were even locked up—andto trample over the rights of their citizens.
近年来,IOC允许政府在比赛期间搁置一切问题。美国亚特兰大申办1996年奥运会时,政府甚至将流浪汉关押起来,此举无疑践踏公民人权。
 
Defects
 
In crude financial terms, hosting is adisaster: the 2004 games in Athens cost the Greek government about $16 billion(about 5% of the government’s total debt) and the swimming complex remainsunused. Mr Goldblatt reckons that, of the 17 Olympic tournaments held betweenthe second world war and 2012, only the one in Los Angeles, in 1984, actuallymade a profit. Moreover, the idea that the games makes a host nation moreathletic has no foundation. In Britain, fewer people do sport now than didbefore the Olympics in 2012. Little wonder, then, that a “Nolympics” movement hasbuilt up, made of protesters against hosting the games. 
从经济上来看,举办奥运会无疑是一场灾难——希腊政府为举办2004雅典奥运会花费的巨资高达160亿美元,占国家赤字的5%,而且游泳设施压根儿没有使用。作者估算,二战后至今共举行过17届奥运会,仅1984年洛杉矶奥运会盈利,其余均入不敷出。“举办奥运会能使东道主成为体育强国”的理论根本站不住脚。2012年伦敦奥运会后,英国从事体育事业的人数尚不及赛前。毫无疑问,“抵制奥运会”的运动正在兴起,并且有大批抗议者参与其中,反对举办这一体育赛事。
 
Another dark side of the sport can beseen in the way athletes, often at the behest of their national Olympiccommittees, have used performance-enhancing drugs. 
运动员代表国家参赛,他们的成绩与国家荣誉息息相关。因而运动员服用兴奋剂提高比赛成绩,似乎已成为潜规则。这体现了奥运会的另一大弊端。
 
This kind of cheating began in the1930s, if not earlier, though the IOC did not introduce drug testing until1968. As the recent Russian doping scandal highlights, drug use remains all tooprevalent. 
第一起兴奋剂舞弊案发生在20世纪30年代。然而直到1068年,IOC才开始引入兴奋剂检测。近期的俄罗斯兴奋剂丑闻表明,运动员早已将兴奋剂当作家常便饭。
 
So far, this has not undermined thepopularity of the games. In 1912 de Coubertin created a poetry contest andchose as the winner a poem he had written himself, which included the words, “Osport you are justice!”
不过,这并未减少人们对奥运会的热情。1912年顾拜旦举办了一场诗歌比赛,夺冠的一首诗中有这么一句话“啊,体育是公正的!”。
 
但愿,本届奥运会正如诗中所述,展现公正的奥运原则,发扬进取的奥运精神,表现动人的奥运风采。


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