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如果有一天所有人都只吃素了,世界会怎样?

2017-06-16    来源:爱语吧    【      美国外教 在线口语培训

饮食中我们常提倡绿色健康,多吃素食,但如果有一天我们完全不吃肉了,世界会怎样呢?

 

What would actually happen if the whole world suddenly went vegetarian permanently? Here’s a briefing about the potential pros and cons for the climate, environment, our health, economy and more.

如果全世界的人突然都永远地变成了素食主义者会怎样呢?这里我们简单列举了一些吃素对气候、环境、健康和经济等可能存在的利弊。

If vegetarianism was adopted by everyone by 2050, the world would have about seven million fewer deaths every year – and veganism would bring that up to eight million.

如果在2050年以前全世界的人都吃素的话,每年会少死大约七百万人,而如果是严格的素食主义的话,这一数字会上升到八百万。


Food-related emissions would drop by around 60%, according to Marco Springmann, a research fellow at the Oxford Martin School’s Future of Food programme. This would be down to getting rid of red meat – which come from methane-producing livestock – from people’s diets.

牛津大学马丁学院未来食品计划的研究人员Marco Springmann的研究数据显示,食品相关排放将下降约60%。这是因为人们将不再吃红肉,而家畜的红肉会产生甲烷。

However, farmers in the developing world could really suffer. Arid and semi-arid rangeland can only be used to raise animals, such as the Sahel land strip in Africa next to the Sahara; nomadic groups that keep livestock there would be forced to settle permanently and lose their cultural identities if there was no more meat.

然而,发展中国家的农民可能要遭受损失。那些干旱和半干旱的牧场只能用来饲养动物,比如撒哈拉沙漠附近的非洲荒漠草原;如果人们不再吃肉的话,那些靠饲养牲畜生活的游牧部落将被迫永久定居,而且失去他们的文化身份。

Repurposing former pastures into native habitats and forests would alleviate climate change and bring back lost biodiversity, including larger herbivores such as buffalo, and predators such as wolves, all of which were previously pushed out or killed in order to keep cattle.

把以前的牧场改造成原生态的动物栖息地和森林将会减缓气候的恶化,恢复已损坏的生物多样性,包括大型食草动物如水牛,还有狼等掠食者,这些动物之前都为养牛而被赶走或杀死。

Everybody currently engaged in the livestock industry would need to be retrained for a new career – this could be in agriculture, reforestation or producing bioenergy. Failing to provide career alternatives could lead to mass unemployment and social upheaval, particularly in traditionally rural communities.

当前每个从事畜牧业的人都需要接受重新培训,以适应新的职业,这些职业领域可能包括农业、旧林改造或生产生物能源。如果不能提供其它职业机会,可能会导致大规模的失业和社会动荡,尤其是在传统的农村社区。

Taking livestock like sheep away could actually have a negative impact on biodiversity, as their grazing has helped to shape the land for centuries – so some farmers could be paid to keep animals for environmental purposes.

把像羊一样的牲畜带走可能会对生物多样性造成不良影响,因为对羊的放牧已经在几个世纪里让一片片土地受益良多 - 因此农民们会因他们为环境作出的贡献而得到报酬。

No more Christmas turkey – losing meat means that we would also lose traditions. Many communities around the world offer gifts of livestock at weddings and celebrations. For Ben Phalan at the University of Cambridge, this is “why efforts to reduce meat consumption have often faltered”.

圣诞节再也吃不到火鸡了——不吃肉也意味着我们将抛弃传统习俗。在全世界许多地方人们都在婚礼和庆典上吃牲畜肉类。用剑桥大学Ben Phalan的话说,这就是“为什么想努力减少肉类消费总是那么难”。

No meat would lower the chances of coronary heart disease, diabetes, stroke and some cancers – and so save the world 2-3% global gross domestic product in medical bills.

不吃肉能降低得冠心病、糖尿病、中风、某些癌症的几率,因此,全球在医疗费用方面的国内生产总值将下降2-3%。

But we would need to replace meat with nutritional substitutes, in particular for the world’s estimated two billion-plus undernourished people. Animal products contain more nutrients per calorie than staples like grains and rice.

但是,我们需要用营养品来代替肉类,因此值得注意的是,世界上估计会有20多亿营养不良的人。动物产品比谷物和大米等主食含有更多的营养成分。



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